Mohon dijelaskan notasi Energi Organsime.

Pertanyaan: Akungibnu tidak konsisten: dahulu akung menyatakan bahwa energi organisme merupakan interaksi antara clear energy  (E=0), dengan EMW yang menghasilkan photon, belakangan di facebook memformulakan energi organisme sebagai {(E=0)*(E#0)} Mana yang benar?

Jawaban: Terima kasih cucu selalu mengikuti tulisan akung. Yang benar adalah energi organisme merupakan interaksi antara clear energy (E=0) dengan EMW yang menghasilkan photon.   Energi organisme memiliki (E=0), sedangkan {(E=0)*(E#0)}  juga akan menghasilkan (E=0), jadi sepintas notasi itu tidak salah, namun terdapat EMW  yang jika berinteraksi dengan clear body tidak akan menghasilkan energi organisme, yaitu ATW.

Penjelasan EMW terdiri dari STW dan ATW.   STW dapat menghasilkan photon atau quantum,  sehingga kecepatan di ruang hampa c dan diruangan berisi partikel kecepatannya dibawah c. Gelombang Som Wyn ( GSW)  menghasilkan neutrinos, sehingga kecepatannya dapat melebihi c. ATW tidak mengasilkan partikel sehingga merupakan gelombang transenden murni yang memiliki E#0. Karena ATW tidak menghasilkan photon maka jika berinteraksi dengan clear energy tidak akan menghasilkan energi organisme.

Dengan tulisan ini akung telah mengoreksi kesalahan akung, semoga cucu tetap bersemangat mengikuti tulisan akung.

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Alien Nenek Moyang Manusia ?

Pertanyaan: Saat ini dunia ilmu pengetahuan  “gempar”  oleh berita penemuan planet yang berpenduduk atau Habitable  Zone. Saya lalu teringat tulisan-tulisan Akungibnu di wordpress yang berkaitan dengan Alam Semesta. Bagaimana pandangan Akungibnu terhadap keberadaan Alien dan penemuan Habitable Zone di Alam Semesta?

Jawaban: Terima kasih cucu bersedia membaca tulisan akung dan mengikuti perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, sehingga akung berharap cucu bersedia mengkritis tulisan-tulisan akung, namun jangan beranggapan bahwa akung sanggup meramal sesuatu yang akan terjadi. Akung sekedar berkotak-katik atas dasar ilmu yang akung pelajari dan sangat minim, yaitu Fisika, Matematika  dan Biologi. Dari ketiga ilmu yang akung pelajari akung sanggup membedakan antara benda/materi dengan organisme, membedakan organisme dengan living organisme.

Berdasar kotak katik akung: Jika Alien memang ada karena  dapat kita lihat atau direkam dengan still camera atau movie camera, baik yang analog maupun digital, pastilah dia bukan makhluk gaib (bertubuh gaib) , bukan makhluk metafisik (bertubuh metafisik), bukan  makhluk transenden (bertubuh astral) apalagi non body yang bertubuh Non Energi dan siap meninggalkan Alam Semesta menuju Alam Abadi. Hanya ada dua kemungkinan: dia robot atau living organisme.

Teori Som Wyn yang menginformasikan ada tujuh lapis microcosmos. 1. Living Organisme. 2. Living Astral Body. 3. Living Dark Body. 4. Living Bright Body. 5. Talent Body. 6. Holly Body. 7. Non Body. Berdasar Biologi: Living organisme harus bertubuh organisme, baik itu tumbuh-tumbuhan, binatang maupun manusia.

Jika manusia sanggup “menangkap Alien”, maka dapat dibuktikan apakah dia termasuk Living Organisme atau bukan. Jika Alien hanya terbuat dari materi yang dibangun oleh atom, molekul……….dan matter, maka  Alien tidak dapat dimasukkan dalam living organisme berdasar Sistematika Biologi. Berdasar Teknologi yang berbasis Fisika dan Mathematika, maka Alien dapat “dicurigai” sekedar robot.

Seandainya Alien itu robot, maka pasti dibuat oleh living organisme yang telah menguasai teknologi sangat tinggi, sehingga mungkin saja dibuat oleh manusia atau living organisme lainnya yang setara manusia atau yang jauh lebih cerdas dari manusia, baik yang menempati planet yang  letaknya dekat dengan bumi, dalam wilayah tata surya kita, Gugusan Bimasakti, bahkan mungkin planet dari Galaksi Lain.

Jika manusia sanggup mengirim kendaraan ruang angkasa yang memiliki massa ke planet lain, maka tidak mustahil  living organisme cerdas diluar bumi juga sanggup mengirim kendaraan bermassa ke bumi. Robot buatan manusia dapat diprogram atau dikendalikan lewat EMW, jadi robot buatan living organisme cerdas lain  juga dapat diprogram atau dikenadalikan dengan  EMW oleh pembuatnya. Yang harus dipermasalahkan adalah menurut Teori Relativitas partikel betapapun kecil  jika bergerak mendekati kecepatan cahaya akan bertambah massanya. Secara akal budi hampir tidak mungkin kendaraan (peralatan transportasi) bergerak mendekati kecepatan cahaya, kecuali jika tidak punya massa.  Hukum Newton dengan Rumusnya F= ma juga dapat digunakan untuk membuktikan bahwa sesuatu yang tidak bermassa akan sanggup bergerak melebihi kecepatan cahaya.   Jika  m = 0, maka dengan Gaya (F)  sangat kecil dapat diperoleh percepatan (a) sangat besar  sehingga mungkin saja “benda” yang tidak memiliki massa bergerak melebihi  kecepatan cahaya diruang hampa (c). Menurut Fisika cahaya tidak memiliki massa, namun kenyataannya kecepatannya diruang hampa terbatas (c), bahkan diruang yang berisi materi lebih lambat. Menurut Teori Relativitas kecepatan cahaya dianggap tetap sedangkan Teori Newton menganggap massa tetap. Mana yang benar?

Akung tak mempersamasalkan kebenaran kedua teori tersebut melainkan mempertanyakan bagaimana mungkin robot atau living organisme  yang memiliki massa dapat dipindahkan dari planet yang memiliki biosfera atau Habitable Zone ke bumi atau sebaliknya? Untuk jarak dekat dapat digunakan kendaraan ruang angkasa yang memiliki massa, namun untuk jarak yang cukup jauh dibutuhkan EMW  sebagai sarana komunikasi yang kecepatannya sama dengan c atau dibawahnya. Untuk mengendalikan/mengarahkan  kendaraan ruang angkasa ke suatu objek  yang menjadi tujuan dibutuhkan navigasi yang membutuhkan EMW. Seandainya di planet Mars terdapat peradapan melebih peradaban manusia di Bumi, maka mereka mungkin dapat memanfaatkan UFO untuk membawa Alien dari Mars ke bumi. Namun mungkin saja UFO dan Alien  dibuat di bumi  dengan bahan baku materi yang ada di bumi dengan  memanfaatkan proggram yang dikirim dari Mars dengan memanfaatkan EMW dari Mars. Pembuatannya juga mungkin saja di bumi  dengan manfaatkan EMW seperti yang dilakukan oleh manusia mencetak surat kabar yang terbit disuatu tempat (misalnya Yogya) dengan bahan yang dikirim dari jauh (Misalnya Jakarta, Australia atau Amerika). Namun untuk jarak yang teramat jauh tak mungkin menggunakan EMW yang kecepatannya terbatas c atau dibawah c. Sebagai contoh, jika di Kepler terdapat living organsime setara manusia, mereka tidak mungkin mengirim UFO dan Alien atau membuat UFO dan Alien di Bumi atau disekitar bumi, kecuali jika mereka sanggup memasnfaatkan EMW yang kecepatannya melebihi c.

Teori Gelombang Minimalis  menginformasikan adanya EMW yang kecepatannya melebihi c, yaitu EMW yang tidak menghasilkan photon, sayangnya EMW jenis ini tak mungkin dibuat atau dikendalikan oleh peralatan fisika, sebab peralatan fisika hanya mungkin memanfaatkan cahaya yang kecepatannya c diruangan hampa atau dibawah c diruangan terisi materi.

Formula Gelombang Som Wyn (FGSW):  a3*sin (u3 + w3t) = – a1*sin (u1 + w1t) + a2*sin (u2 + w3t), secara mathematis dapat menjelaskan adanya berbagai jenis cahaya yang kecepatannya melebihi c namun masih dapat dihasilkan dan dikendalikan oleh peralatan fisika.   Gelombang jenis ini dinamakan Super Light atau Gelombang Som Wyn (GSW) . Partikel yang  dapat mengendalikan dan dikendalikan oleh peralatan fisika bukan photon, melainkan setara dengan neutrinos.

GSW dapat dimanfaatkan untuk melakukan komunikasi antar planet yang jaraknya teramat jauh, tergantung dari kecepatannya yang sanggup melebihi cahaya biasa namun masih dapat  direspon oleh peralatan fisika canggih. Berdasarkan adanya GSW maka mungkin sekali manusia atau makhluk cerdas lainnya melakukan cetak jarak super jauh sebagai halnya mencetak surat kabar, atau memproduksi barang dengan memanfaatkan EMW untuk mengirim perintah dan memanfaatkan materi yang ada ditempat produksi. Jadi seandainya Alien itu robot, maka dapat dibuat dari jarak sangat jauh, Misalnya robot yang dinamakan Alien  dibuat di bumi  dengan materi yang ada di bumi atas “perintah”   makhluk cerdas di  Kepler. Demikian halnya kendaraan yang digunakan oleh Alein, yaitu UFO juga mungkin diproduksi  sejalan dengan Alien.

Jika ternyata tubuh Alien adalah organisme, jelas bahwa Alien bukan robot melainkan living organisme, dapat mirip binatang maupun manusia.

Teori Paralogika menginformasikan ada dua jenis living organisme berdasar spiritualisme ( bukan berdasar biologi):  

1. Whiteblank Body (WB) adalah organisme yang dikendalikan oleh soul , diantaranya manusia yang dikendalikan oleh ruh yang berasal dari surga dan berusaha untuk  langsung kembali ke surga tanpa melalui prfoses reinkarnasi. Hal ini sesuai dengan RS khususnya Agama Langit.

2. Reinkarnated Body (RB):  adalah living organisme yang dikendalikan oleh spirit. Spirit dalam kondisi bebas dinamakan Living Astral Body, living body yang betubuh astral dan  tersusun dari eter dan dikendalikan oleh soul.

Teori Eter Som Wyn menginformasikan: Eter adalah dipole magnet Weber yang kedua kutubnya tidak sama jenis dan besarnya (kutub x # kutub y). Eter adalah fenomena Sub Alam Transenden  : tidak memiliki massa sehingga tidak membutuhkan ruang naya.

Living Astral Body yang bertubuh  astral sanggup berkelana di seluruh Alam Semesta karena tidak terpengaruh oleh gaya gravitasi, tidak memperoleh reaksi dari materi karena tidak membutuhkan ruang nyata. Living Astral Body merupakan  bagian dari microcosmos sehingga dapat melakukan aktivitas secara individual namun  LAB memiliki unsur energi sehingga tidak mungkin keluar dari Alam Semesta sesuai dengan Teori Minimalis yang menginformasikan bahwa Alam Semesta merupakan sistem tertutup (bagi energi).

Living Astral Body sanggup  berkelana di seluruh Alam Semesta untuk memperoleh bagian Alam Semesta yang memiliki lapisan biosfera ( Habitable Zone)..  LAB hanya sanggup memanfaatkan energi transenden (eter) sehingga berusaha memperoleh organisme agar sanggup memanfaatkan berbagai energi.

Dimana terdapat HZ , maka disitumungkin  terjadi  living organisme baik WB maupun RB. Mengapa? Soul adalah bagian dari Non Energi maka juga terdapat Alam Semesta namun tidak mungkin dilacak  oleh Pancaindera maupun peralatan fisika hasil  akal manusia karena soul tidak mengandung unsur energi. 

Seandainya Alien itu merupakan Living Oraganisme, maka UFO mungkin juga merupakan living organisme (sejenis binatang raksaksa yang sanggup terbang sebagai metos naga terbang, namun belum dimaksukan dalam sistematika biologi. karena tidak terdapat di bumi. Untuk ini harus dibuktikan dengan melakukan analisa “tubuh UFO” sebagai yang dilakukan terhadap Alien.

Jika  Alien  sekedar robot dan UFO sekedar kendaraan ruang angkasa yang terbuat dari materi sangat mudah  dijelaskan berdasar MS, namun jika terbukti keduanya merupakan living organisme, maka tak mungkin dijelaskan berdasar  MS, namun teramat mudah dijelaskan oleh RS. Mengapa? Semua adalah kehendak Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa.

Jika Alien merupakan Living Organisme sementara UFO merupakan  kendaraan ruang angkasa hasil karya living organisme yang peradabannya telah sangat maju, maka nanya dapat dijelaskan oleh SS.

SS menginformasikan bahwa Tuhan YME menyediakan segalanya yang diinginkan dan yang tidak diinginkan oleh ciptaan Nya. Segala yang terjadi adalah ulah ciptaan Nya, namun pasti telah mendapatkan izin Nya.

Jadi jika Alien dan UFO memang ada, maka pastilah itu ulah ciptaan Nya namun telah mendapatkan izin Nya. Jika Alien dan UFO akan menghancurkan peradaban manusia artinya keberadaannya pasti tidak diinginkan oleh manusia. Sebaliknya jika mereka justru akan menyelamatkan” manusia dari kehancuran, maka keberadaannya pasti diinginkan oleh manusia. Nah berdasar itu manusia harus mewaspada fenomena misterius itu, sehingga tidak bertindak gegabah, namun bukan bersikap pasrah.

Saya kutibkan perihal  Ancient Alien yang “dicurigai” merupakan nenek moyang manusia, sehingga manusia sanggup melakukan proses revolusi sebagai yang dinyatakan oleh Teori Revolusi Som Wyn:

Ancient Aliens

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about a television program. For hypotheses about extraterrestrial visitations during ancient times, seeAncient astronaut hypothesis.
Ancient Aliens
Ancient aliens.png
Genre Entertainment
Narrated by Robert Clotworthy
Country of origin United States
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 8
No. of episodes 96
Production
Executiveproducer(s) Kevin Burns
Camera setup Multiple
Running time 88 minutes (season 1)
44 minutes
(season 2 – present)
Productioncompany(s) Prometheus Entertainment
Distributor A&E Television Networks
Release
Original channel History
Original release March 8, 2009 (Pilot)
April 20, 2010 – present
External links
Website
Production website

Ancient Aliens is an American television series that premiered on April 20, 2010 on the History channel.[1] Produced by Prometheus Entertainment, the program presents hypotheses of ancient astronauts and proposes that historical texts, archaeology, and legends contain evidence of past human-extraterrestrial contact.[2][3] The show has been criticized for presentingpseudoscience and pseudohistory.

The series’ de facto pilot was a TV special of the same name that aired on March 8, 2009, on the History channel. Seasons 1–3 aired on the same channel until 2011. Beginning in 2012 with season 4, the series began airing on H2. Season 7 began on H2 in October 2014. On April 10, 2015, new episodes began premiering on the History channel. Season 8 began on July 24, 2015.

Production[edit]

The executive producer of Ancient Aliens is Kevin Burns, who also directed and wrote the pilot episode. Giorgio A. Tsoukalos serves as consulting producer and appeared on screen in the pilot.[4] Erich von Däniken appeared in the pilot episode, and UFO researcher C. Scott Littleton served as an expert consultant for the show until his death in 2010.[5]

Radio talk show host George Noory speaks in five episodes, including the pilot. Reverend Barry Downing, known for describing angels in the Bible as ancient astronauts, offered his viewpoints in the pilot episode. Psychologist Jonathan Young, who brings a mythological perspective, appears on screen in every episode but the first pilot. Alternate historyauthor David Hatcher Childress speaks frequently in most episodes.

Reception[edit]

The program had 1.676 million viewers in late October 2010,[6] 2.034 million viewers in mid-December (for the “Unexplained Structures” episode)[7] and in late January 2011 it had 1.309 million viewers.[8][9]

Some reviewers have characterized the show as “far-fetched”,[10] “hugely speculative”,[11] and “…expound[ing] wildly on theories suggesting that astronauts wandered the Earth freely in ancient times.”[12] Many of the ideas presented in the show are not accepted by the scientific community, and have been criticized as pseudoscience and pseudohistory.[13] History professor Ronald H. Fritze observed that pseudoscience as offered by von Däniken and the Ancient Aliens program has a periodic popularity in the US: “In a pop culture with a short memory and a voracious appetite, aliens and pyramids and lost civilizations are recycled like fashions.”[13][14]

Forbes.com contributor Brad Lockwood criticized Ancient Aliens as an example of the History Channel’s addition of “programs devoted to monsters, aliens, and conspiracies”, commenting that, “Ancient Aliens defies all ability to suspend disbelief for the sake of entertainment.”[15] Forbes.com staff writer Alex Knapp also criticized the series and citedarchaeologist Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews’ rebuke of the History Channel for “treating (Ancient Aliens) nonsense as though it were fact.”[16]

Smithsonian.com science writer Brian Switek was extremely critical of the series, particularly an episode that suggested “aliens exterminated dinosaurs to make way for our species”. He characterized the show as “some of the most noxious sludge in television’s bottomless chum bucket.”[17][18]

Others have called attention to a paucity of opposing viewpoints. Kenneth Feder, Professor of Archaeology at Central Connecticut State University and author of Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology,[19]has said that he was approached by Ancient Aliens producers regarding his potential participation. “My response was, I’d be happy to be on your show, but you should know that I think that the ancient astronaut hypothesis is execrable bullshit,” he said, in an interview. “I haven’t heard back from them, rather remarkably. So, I guess maybe they’re not interested in the other point of view.”[20]

In popular culture[edit]

South Park parodied the show in an episode entitled “A History Channel Thanksgiving” (November 11, 2011, episode 15.13). Reviewer Ramsey Isler commented, “The aim is placed squarely on Ancient Aliens specifically,” and described the animation as “a perfect satire of all the ridiculousness of this series, including the black and white art with aliens photoshopped in, and interviews with people of dubious authority.”[21]

In a June 2011 Rolling Stone interview, singer Katy Perry commented that she had become “obsessed” with the show, saying, “When it talks about the sky people, how everyone comes from the sky and how the Pyramids were used for star observations, it’s too much for me. It all seems to connect the dots. It’s blowing my mind.”[22]

In a March 2012 appearance on The Ellen DeGeneres Show, actress Megan Fox remarked that she “loved” Ancient Aliens. Ellen agreed the show and its theories were “thought-provoking.”[23]

Episodes[edit]

Series overview[edit]

Season Episodes Originally aired
Season premiere Season finale
1 6 March 8, 2009 May 25, 2010
2 10 October 28, 2010 December 30, 2010
3 16 July 28, 2011 November 23, 2011
4 15 February 17, 2012 January 18, 2013
5 15 January 25, 2013 November 15, 2013
6 20 November 29, 2013 August 22, 2014
7 12 October 31, 2014 May 1, 2015
8 TBA July 24, 2015 TBA

Season 1 (2009–10)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Original air date
1 0 (Pilot) “Chariots, Gods & Beyond” March 8, 2009
The pilot presents the views of author Erich von Däniken who theorized that advanced beings from another world visited primitive humans, gave them the knowledge of the solar system, concepts of engineering and mathematics, and became the basis for their religions and cultures as he claims are evidenced by ancient monuments such as the Nazca Lines, thePyramids of Giza and the Moai statues of Easter Island.
2 1 “The Evidence” April 20, 2010
This episode suggests that aliens made contact with primitive humans, and cites as evidence, Indian Sanskrit texts that are suggested to describe flying machines called Vimanas; Egyptian megaliths that are said to show precision cutting work thought to be too advanced for the time; and Jewish Zohar writings that are said to describe a “manna machine” similar to chlorella algae processing of today.
3 2 “The Visitors” April 27, 2010
The episode proposes that alien visitations have occurred around the globe, and cites as evidence, claims that the Dogon people were given galactic knowledge by a star god; the Hopi and Zuni celebrations of Kachinas (or “gods from the sky”) that are symbolized with headdress that are said to resemble modern space helmets; and that the Chinese Huangdi was a Han leader who came to Earth on a yellow dragon which is suggested to have been a metaphor for a spaceship.
4 3 “The Mission” May 4, 2010
This episode proposes that extraterrestrials have a mission plan for Earth and mankind, and cites as evidence, Sumeriantablets that allegedly describe the Anunnaki as a race of creatures that came to Earth to mine gold; the purpose of cattle mutilations; the mile-long “band of holes” near Pisco, Peru; Egyptian hieroglyphs that are said to depict hybrid creatures that are part man/part animal; and crystal skulls and crop circles that are said to contain messages from aliens.
5 4 “Closer Encounters” May 18, 2010
This episode suggests that alien encounters have been documented in various historical texts, citing as evidence, the 13th-century book Otia Imperialia which describes an incident in Bristol, England ascribed to UFOs; the log entries ofChristopher Columbus that report lights in the sky; stories of cigar-shaped craft allegedly seen over Europe during theBlack Plague; and Medieval art that supposedly depicts disc-shaped objects floating in the heavens.
6 5 “The Return” May 25, 2010
Perhaps aliens have contacted humans in the 20th century.

Season 2 (2010)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Original air date
7 1 “Mysterious Places” October 28, 2010
This episode examines locations around the Earth that are proposed “hot spots” of UFO activity, such as the Bermuda Triangle; Mexico‘s “Zone of Silence“, an area of land said to naturally disrupt radio signals; the portal-like structure atPeru‘s Puerta de Hayu Marca; and the curious rock formations of the Marcahuasi Plateau.
8 2 “Gods and Aliens” November 4, 2010
This episode looks at legends about powerful gods and fearsome monsters that are said to share similarities even though these legends are found in different cultures separated by vast distances; this episode also suggests that these legends may be eyewitness accounts of alien visitations. Also discussed are tales of gods interacting with humans, imparting wisdom and technology and impregnating women to create demigods, who are supposedly the offspring of human/alien unions.
9 3 “Underwater Worlds” November 11, 2010
This episode suggests that various underwater structures and ruins said to have been found around the globe may have been used by extraterrestrials, such as the temple ruins found under Lake Titicaca in Peru, the geometric structures ofYonaguni off the coast of Japan, and ancient Indian texts that allegedly describe other sunken cities yet to be discovered.
10 4 “Underground Aliens” November 18, 2010
This episode hypothesizes that various underground places may have been extraterrestrial lairs, such as a lost cave inEcuador said to hold metal tablets containing alien knowledge, the underground city of Derinkuyu in Turkey, Native American legends of “inner-earth” beings, and rumors of a secret U.S. military base supposedly built alongside aliens inside the Archuleta Mesa near Dulce, New Mexico.
11 5 “Aliens and the Third Reich” November 25, 2010
This episode speculates that Nazi Germany had experimented with advanced alien technology and built flying machines, such as the Haunebu and the Die Glocke (The Bell), and rumors that some of this technology may have made its way to the United States and helped jumpstart the Apollo program.
12 6 “Alien Tech” December 2, 2010
This episode proposes that some advanced weapon technologies currently in development, such as laser and sonic weapons, are rediscovered technologies used by advanced beings in the past. Also discussed are theories that aliens provided gravity manipulation devices to help man construct colossal stone structures around the world.
13 7 “Angels and Aliens” December 9, 2010
This episode looks at various stories of angelic visitations that to some ancient astronaut theorists read more like alien encounters than divine appearances, and suggests they are not supernatural beings, but visitors from distant planets.
14 8 “Unexplained Structures” December 16, 2010
This episode suggests that various sites around the world; such as Göbekli Tepe in Turkey; the Incan ruins ofSacsayhuamán in Peru; the Carnac stones of France; and Zorats Karer in Armenia, show construction techniques and mathematical concepts that were not believed to have been known at the time, and that this knowledge was gained from alien visitors.
15 9 “Alien Devastations” December 23, 2010
This episode surmises that aliens may have caused various disasters, as depicted in the Bible and other texts, or even tried to warn man of them; such as Noah of the Great Flood. Also proposed is that some disasters ushered changes in human evolution and that our leaps in technology over the centuries were achieved with alien help.
16 10 “Alien Contacts” December 30, 2010
This episode proposes that extraterrestrials may have contacted various humans throughout history, such as Moses andJoan of Arc, to help guide and inspire them to achieve great things; or to pass on important messages for humanity; such as a supposed binary message given to a UFO-contactee during the 1980 Rendlesham Forest incident who believes it is the coordinates to a mythical island called Hy-Brazil.

Season 3 (2011)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Original air date
17 1 “Aliens and the Old West” July 28, 2011
Opening with clips from the 2011 film Cowboys & Aliens, this episode looks at American Old West legends that may have involved ET contact, such as the Aurora, Texas UFO incident where a local cemetery claims to hold a body from an 1897 UFO crash; Native American legends surrounding the Serpent mound in Adams County, Ohio; reports of a Thunderbirdthat periodically emerged from California’s Elizabeth Lake, and a story of ranchers shooting at “metallic birds” nearTombstone, Arizona.
18 2 “Aliens and Monsters” August 4, 2011
This episode examines modern-day genetic engineering, cloning and hybridization technology, and suggests that such technology could have been used by ancient aliens in the past to manipulate mankind and the environment. Also theorized are that the legends of creatures, such as the Chimera and Hydra, and humanoids, such as the Minotaur andMedusa, may have been encounters with beings created through alien animal/human hybrid experimentation.
19 3 “Aliens and Sacred Places” August 11, 2011
This episode suggests that some of mankind’s most sacred places were points of contact by alien beings. Examples given are Jerusalem’s Temple Mount and Dome of the Rock; the Kaaba stone at the Islam shrine at Mecca; the temples of theAjanta Caves in India; the churches of Lalibela, Ethiopia that are carved out of rock; and the ancient city of Baalbek in Lebanon which was allegedly built with a “landing pad” of monolithic rock.
20 4 “Aliens and Temples of Gold” August 18, 2011
This episode contends that aliens came to Earth to mine gold. Examined are the legends of cities of gold such as El Dorado and Paititi; Lake Puray in Peru where UFO sightings may be linked to gold beneath the lake; the gold-creating device called the Philosopher’s Stone; the Hall of Records beneath the Great Sphinx of Giza, (suggested to be a repository of ancient knowledge); a Medieval church in the French village of Rennes-le-Château that may hold the secrets of alchemy; and Scotland’s Rosslyn Chapel where a helix-shaped pillar, (suggested to represent DNA), may be the hiding place of the Holy Grail.
21 5 “Aliens and Mysterious Rituals” August 25, 2011
This episode proposes that various ancient sites and the rituals performed there were not to praise mythical gods, but to reenact contact and communication with alien beings. Examples given are the Mayan temple of El Castillo, Chichen Itza; the Celtic Beltane Festival; the ceremonies of the Kayapo people of Brazil that involve a dancer dressed in an outfit that resembles a spacesuit; Medieval coronation ceremonies and the symbolic meanings of thrones, crowns and scepters as communication devices to the heavens; Native American and Shamanistic chants and prayers; and the ritual meanings of the Catholic Mass.
22 6 “Aliens and Ancient Engineers” September 1, 2011
This episode surmises that several ancient sites were built with help from aliens. Examples given are the ruins ofOllantaytambo in Peru, (an Inca city believed built atop a far older and more advanced-built fortress); the pyramids ofTeotihuacan in Mexico, (which use heat and radiation shielding Mica in their engineering); the temples of Vijayanagara in India, (suggested to have been designed to tap into cosmic energy); the temples of Karnak in Egypt, (which show symmetrical and precision sculpting believed unobtainable by primitive hand tools); and the ancient ruins on Malta, (whose designs seems to have incorporated an acoustic energy technology).
23 7 “Aliens, Plagues and Epidemics” September 8, 2011
This episode suggests that some plagues and diseases were brought on by pathogens of extraterrestrial origin. Examples given are sudden pandemics such as the Spanish Influenza, the Plague of Athens, the Justinian Plague and the Black Plague, which were accompanied by reports of unusual celestial phenomena, and the appearance of strange creatures and objects in the sky; ancient carvings of figures dressed in what are suggested to be hazmat suits; unexplained illnesses that have appeared after meteor impacts, NASA experiments with bacteria and extremophiles that can survive in the extreme conditions of space; and the recent appearance of unusual medical conditions such as Morgellons Disease.
24 8 “Aliens and Lost Worlds” September 15, 2011
This episode postulates that various past civilizations were ruled by otherworldly beings. Examined are carvings in the Mayan city of Copán that are suggested to depict kings dressed in spacesuits; the Greek and Persian temples of Nemrud Dagi in Turkey, constructed by King Antiochus who some believe had advanced knowledge of astronomy and access to “magical” technology; the Nazca people of Peru who elongated their skulls to possibly mimic beings they encountered; theMoai statues of Easter Island that may have been erected with anti-gravity technology, and the Garden of Eden which may have been an alien laboratory for the creation of mankind.
25 9 “Aliens and Deadly Weapons” September 22, 2011
This episode suggests that the development of various weapons throughout history may have been guided by aliens. Examined are ancient legends that speak of fire and the secrets of metalworking as gifts from the gods; stories of divine weapons such as Excalibur as possibly powered by an alien source; the mystery of Greek fire as a gift from angels for theByzantines; the development of the complicated chemistry of gunpowder by the ancient Chinese; the writings of the HinduMahabharata describing weapons reminiscent of guided rockets, beam weapons and nuclear devices used by the gods; and the Cambodian tales of Preah Pisnulok who wielded a blazing sword reminiscent of the science-fictional lightsaber.
26 10 “Aliens and Evil Places” September 28, 2011
This episode examines various places on Earth that are associated with evil and death, and suggests that they may have otherworldly connections, such as being dumping grounds for dangerous alien waste material or containing portals to other realms. Featured are Japan’s Aokigahara “Suicide Forest” near Mount Fuji, where countless people have gone to die; Russia’s remote Mt. Otorten “Mountain of Death” where in 1959, nine hikers were found burned and mutilated by an undetermined cause; Australia’s Black Mountain (Kalkajaka) where people have mysteriously disappeared in the area, and the “Valley of the Dead” at Yakutia, Russia, where unexplained deaths and illnesses are attributed to a possible underground alien base.
27 11 “Aliens and The Founding Fathers” October 5, 2011
This episode suggests that some of the philosophies, and alleged secret symbolism surrounding the founding of the United States, have connections to extraterrestrials. Examined are Benjamin Franklin‘s writings on the “plurality of worlds;” stories that George Washington had an alien visitation at Valley Forge; Thomas Jefferson‘s report of a UFO sighting; the Freemason interest in ancient cultures and astronomy, and the possible influence it all had in the architecture and layout of Washington, D.C..
28 12 “Aliens and Deadly Cults” October 12, 2011
This episode examines various cults around the world that have committed horrific acts and suggests that some may have been influenced by aliens with a sinister agenda. Examined are groups who claimed to receive messages from ETs such as the suicidal Heaven’s Gate and the Order of the Solar Temple; the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God whose leader murdered 750 followers; the human sacrifice murders of Adolfo Constanzo who claimed worship of the “trickster god” Eshu; the mass-murderous Thuggee cult of India; the Christian Circumcellionssuicide-sect; Aztec human sacrifice rituals, and the theory that humans were hard-wired through genetic manipulation to worship alien beings as gods.
29 13 “Aliens and the Secret Code” October 19, 2011
This episode theorizes that various megalithic structures around the Earth are built upon a “world grid” of electromagnetic energy and that this power may have been tapped for travel and communication. It also suggests that there are hidden messages within these sites that show they have connections to one another. Featured are Teotihuacan and Easter Island, (sites separated by 2000 miles of ocean, but having similar architecture); the Pyramids at Giza, Thornborough Henges, and ancient Hopi cities (all three configured to resemble Orion); the straight line alignments of sites such asTrelleborg, Delphi and Giza; and stone carvings at Gavrinis (from 3500 BC) accurately calculating the circumference of the Earth and Pi.
30 14 “Aliens and the Undead” October 26, 2011
This episode discusses the possibility of life after death, the beliefs associated with it in various cultures and raises the question of whether certain rituals can be attributed to ancient aliens.
31 15 “Aliens, Gods and Heroes” November 16, 2011
This episode looks into various legends about gods and heroes and surmises that the existence of such beings was not only possible, but that they were also beings of extraterrestrial origin.
32 16 “Aliens and the Creation of Man” November 23, 2011
This episode asks why humans are so different from other lifeforms on Earth, and proposes that advances in human evolution were the work of interstellar beings.

Season 4 (2012–13)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Original air date
33 1 “The Mayan Conspiracy” February 17, 2012
This episode suggests that the ancient Maya were given their knowledge of mathematics and astronomy by extraterrestrials. It alleges advanced city engineering despite the use of metal tools and the wheel; knowledge of celestial events (such as pole shifts) thousands of years before the culture began; and a complex writing system only understood by the rulers and clerics among them. Featured artifacts include the sarcophagus lid of Palenque‘s King Pakal, who is said to be piloting a rocket ship; the La Venta Olmec heads suggested to represent African people in flight helmets; and the feathered serpent god Kukulkan possibly depicted elsewhere in the world as the Naga and Chinese dragon.
34 2 “The Doomsday Prophecies” February 17, 2012
This episode looks at the Maya civilization and their advanced knowledge of mathematics and timekeeping. It presents theories as to why the Maya backdated the 5125-year long-count calendar to 3114 BC (over 3,000 years before their civilization began) and what could happen after it ends December 21, 2012. Discussed are two artifacts, Tortugueromonument six and a Comalcalco mud brick, that may suggest the return of a star god Bolon Yokte; the Popol Vuhcreation myths; the Chilam Balam manuscripts; and the monuments of Tikal (which is suggested to have been built to mimic the Pleiades cluster); and Chichen Itza, dedicated to the return of the Maya god Kukulkan.
35 3 “The Greys” February 24, 2012
This episode focuses upon the so-called Greys, alleged alien beings characterized as having pale skin and big round heads with large black eyes, and connected within the last century to supposed alien abductions and UFO-related cases such as the Roswell incident. It also proposes that the Greys may have contacted human cultures in the distant past, such as the Hopi Indians and the Sumerians, and these events have been preserved in various ancient writings, sculptures and cave paintings.
36 4 “Aliens and Mega-Disasters” March 2, 2012
This episode looks at various accounts of ancient civilizations that were destroyed by natural disasters such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and floods and proposes that otherworldly beings may have had a hand in these catastrophic events.
37 5 “The NASA Connection” March 9, 2012
This episode delves into various reports by former NASA scientists and astronauts, as well as classified government files that purportedly suggest the space agency had alien contact in both the recent and ancient past. It also propagates several outright lies, such as that Dr Farouk El-Baz selected not only the Apollo landing sites, but also the dates and times.
38 6 “The Mystery of Puma Punku” March 16, 2012
This episode investigates Bolivia‘s 14,000 year-old Puma Punku ruins, where an ancient civilization constructed sophisticated and intricately carved blocks that interlock and suggests the site was not built and inhabited by humans, but by advanced extraterrestrials.
39 7 “Aliens and Bigfoot” March 23, 2012
This episode examines the legends of Bigfoot, a creature described as half-man/half-ape that allegedly stalks remote woodlands around the world, and suggests the creature may have connections to an alien species that may have visited Earth. Also suggested are that the legends of supernatural giants such as the Bible’s Goliath, the hybrid Nephilim, the Sumerian Enkidu, are tales of human interaction with such creatures.
40 8 “The Da Vinci Conspiracy” April 6, 2012
This episode examines some of the paintings, sketches and journals of legendary artist and engineer Leonardo da Vinci, and alleges that some of his work may have been inspired by alien technology he may have encountered. Discussed are the possibility of hidden messages within his work such as parts of his paintings that disappear under x-ray scans; his use of mirror writing to make his notes illegible to prying eyes; his sketches of inhuman and monstrous creatures, and what Da Vinci might have been doing when he seemingly disappeared for two years after finding a mysterious cave.
41 9 “The Time Travelers” April 27, 2012
This episode suggests that some alleged alien encounters may be of beings from Earth’s future traveling in time machines and that these beings visited Earth’s distant past. Examined are the rumors of the Nazi “Die Glocke” time travel machine; the advanced cosmic knowledge of the Anasazi and their similarities to the ancient Sumerians; stories of time travel in the Bible and other ancient texts; and actual space/time experiments that could one day open the door for possible time travel technology.
42 10 “Aliens and Dinosaurs” May 4, 2012
This episode suggests that man and dinosaurs may have coexisted in ancient times and past cultures had knowledge of prehistoric animals long before the study of paleontology. Examined is a carving found in Angkor Wat that is suggested to be a depiction of a stegosaurus; the thousands of Ica Stones of Peru that depict alleged human/dinosaur interaction; and fossils from Dinosaur Valley State Park suggested to contain both dinosaur and human footprints. Also suggested is the idea that dinosaurs may have been wiped out, not by an asteroid impact, but by alien extermination so that humans could become the dominant species on Earth.
43 11 “Secrets of the Pyramids” December 21, 2012
Researchers discuss ancient pyramidal structures; in Bosnia, Egypt, Russia & throughout Mesoamerica.
44 12 “Aliens and Cover Ups”[24] December 28, 2012
Researchers discuss how extraterrestrials might have hidden evidence of their visits.
45 13 “Alien Power Plants”[25] January 4, 2013
Researchers question the accomplishments of ancient man without modern technology.
46 14 “Destination Orion”[26] January 11, 2013
Researchers speculate about why ancient civilizations focused on the Orion constellation.
47 15 “The Einstein Factor”[27] January 18, 2013
Theorists talk about potential extraterrestrial connections to famous historical figures committed to science such as Albert Einstein, Socrates, Leonardo da Vinci, Nikola Tesla and Srinivasa Ramanujan.

Season 5 (2013)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Original air date
48 1 “Secrets of the Tombs”[28] January 25, 2013
Researchers suggest that an extraterrestrial connection links tombs in Egypt, China, and other locations.
49 2 “Prophets and Prophecies”[29] February 8, 2013
Researchers discuss extraterrestrial-based prophecies and prophets, including some of the world’s deadliest cults.
50 3 “Beyond Nazca”[30] February 15, 2013
Researchers discuss extraterrestrial matter possibly contributing to Nazca.
51 4 “Strange Abductions”[31] February 22, 2013
Researchers discuss extraterrestrial-linked disappearances.
52 5 “The Von Daniken Legacy” April 5, 2013
Researchers discuss the legacy of Erich von Däniken‘s Chariots of the Gods?.
53 6 “The Viking Gods” April 12, 2013
Researchers discuss the possibility of alien contact with the Vikings.
54 7 “The Monoliths” April 19, 2013
Researchers discuss Sigiriya, Easter Island and various monoliths.
55 8 “The Power of Three” September 30, 2013
Researchers discuss the Trimurti, Trinity and the common occurrence of the number three in ancient texts.
56 9 “The Crystal Skulls”[32] October 7, 2013
Researchers discuss the worldwide phenomena of the crystal skull.
57 10 “The Anunnaki Connection”[32] October 14, 2013
Researchers discuss a possible connection between extraterrestrials and the Mesopotamian deities known as theAnunnaki.
58 11 “Magic of the Gods”[32] October 21, 2013
Researchers discuss magic, Merlin, and extraterrestrials.
59 12 “The Satan Conspiracy”[32] October 28, 2013
Researchers discuss Satan and the worldwide concept of a devil figure.
60 13 “Alien Operations”[32] November 1, 2013
Researchers discuss medicine, surgery, miracles and alien technology.
61 14 “Emperors, Kings and Pharaohs”[32] November 8, 2013
Researchers discuss historical dynasties possible relationship to extraterrestrials.
62 15 “Mysterious Relics”[32] November 15, 2013
Researchers discuss mythic powers attributed to worldwide religious relics.

Season 6 (2013–14)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Original air date
63 1 “Aliens and Forbidden Islands”[32] November 29, 2013
Researchers discuss mysterious occurrences, including reported alien visitation, on remote islands.
64 2 “Aliens and The Lost Ark”[32] December 6, 2013
Researchers discuss the Ark of the Covenant as misunderstood technology.
65 3 “Aliens and Mysterious Mountains”[32] December 13, 2013
Researchers discuss Mt. Olympus, the Inca of Peru, the Japanese Apu and aliens.
66 4 “Aliens and Stargates”[32] January 24, 2014
Researchers discuss aliens traveling through wormholes and space travel.
67 5 “Aliens in America”[32] January 31, 2014
Researchers discuss alien influence in the United States.
68 6 “The Star Children”[32] February 7, 2014
Researchers discuss the Starchild skull, Star people and the reported Black Eyed Kids.
69 7 “Treasures of the Gods”[33] February 14, 2014
Researchers discuss mythic ancient treasure and curses including King Solomon’s Ring, lost Aztec treasure, and theOmphalos.
70 8 “Aliens and the Red Planet”[33] February 21, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that ancient alien civilizations existed on the planet Mars, and speculate that features photographed by probes may be ruins of ancient structures built by these aliens.
71 9 “The Shamans”[33] February 28, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that beings contacted by shamans in altered states of consciousness are actually extraterrestrials.
72 10 “Aliens and Insects”[33] March 7, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that some aliens may be insect-like, and argue that such beings serve as inspirations for many cultures’ gods and legendary figures.
73 11 “Alien Breeders”[33][34] March 14, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that aliens influenced the course of human evolution, and argue that genetic manipulation of humans by aliens allowed for civilization to arise.
74 12 “Alien Transports”[33][35] June 13, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that modern transportation systems are influenced by aliens who visited Earth in the remote, and not-so-remote past.
75 13 “Mysterious Structures”[33][35] June 20, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that some of Earth’s mysterious structures and monoliths are the work of aliens in the remote past.
76 14 “Mysterious Devices”[33][35] June 27, 2014
Researchers discuss the mysterious objects which may have been the technology of, or have been influenced by the technology of, alien gods who visited us in the past.
77 “Faces of the Gods”[33] July 25, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that many tales of angels and giants in the ancient world were inspired by extraterrestrial visits and experimentation on human DNA.

Note: This was a special episode that was aired immediately after a short hiatus.

78 15 “The Reptilians”[33] July 25, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that many mythological figures in ancient cultures were inspired by actual reptile-like aliens, some of which may have bred with humans.
79 16 “The Tesla Experiment”[33] August 1, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that the great technological developments made by inventor Nikola Tesla were inspired by extraterrestrials.
80 17 “The God Particle”[33] August 8, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that the creation of the Large Hadron Collider was foretold in ancient sources that were inspired by aliens.
81 18 “Alien Encounters”[33] August 15, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that aliens set into motion some of the most significant turning points in human history and have ultimate control over our destiny.
82 19 “Aliens and Superheroes”[33] August 22, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that legends of super-powered beings in ancient mythologies, as well as stories of modern superheroes, originate from retellings of people’s encounters with aliens in the distant past.

Season 7 (2014–15)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Original air date
83 1 “Forbidden Caves”[32] October 31, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that caves have served as portals for contact with extraterrestrial beings, becoming the inspiration for various mythological traditions.
84 2 “Mysteries of the Sphinx”[33] November 7, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that the Sphinx statue originally represented an otherworldly being that came to Earth some 10,000 years ago.
85 3 “Aliens Among Us”[33] November 14, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that the evolution of technology is not entirely of our own making and that we are being watched by entities from beyond our world.
86 4 “The Genius Factor”[33] November 21, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that many of history’s greatest scientists were inspired by extraterrestrial sources.
87 5 “Secrets of the Mummies”[33] November 28, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that the global practice of mummification is proof that extraterrestrials visited Earth in the past.
88 6 “Alien Resurrections”[33] December 5, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that incredible stories about the dead rising from their graves, mummies journeying into the afterlife, and people on the brink of death mingling with deceased relatives in a celestial netherworld are proof that extraterrestrials visited Earth in the distant past.
89 7 “Alien Messages”[33] December 19, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that some strange and cryptic communications can help us unlock the mysteries of the universe and contact extraterrestrial beings.
90 8 “The Great Flood”[33] December 26, 2014
Researchers discuss the possibility that extraterrestrial beings were responsible for causing the Great Flood.
91 9 “Aliens and the Civil War”[32] April 10, 2015
Researchers discuss the possibility that aliens influenced the course of events in the American Civil War.
92 10 “Hidden Pyramids”[33] April 17, 2015
Researchers discuss the possibility that aliens inspired long-buried megalithic pyramids which are only now being rediscovered.
93 11 “The Vanishings”[33] April 24, 2015
Researchers discuss the possibility that history’s mysterious disappearances were caused by extraterrestrials transporting people to other planets.
94 12 “The Alien Agenda”[33] May 1, 2015
Researchers discuss the theory that aliens have been secretly influencing human history for thousands of years.

Season 8 (2015)[edit]

No. in
series
No. in
season
Title Original air date
95 1 “Aliens B.C.”[32] July 24, 2015
Ancient astronaut theorists suggest that an alien civilization inhabited Earth in the distant past.
96 2 “NASA’s Secret Agenda”[32] July 31, 2015
Ancient astronaut theorists suggest that rocket technology pioneered by NASA and Wernher von Braun may have extraterrestrial origins.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “Ancient Aliens Episode Guide”. History.com. December 25, 2010.
  2. ^ “Ancient Aliens Theory”. History.com. December 25, 2010.
  3. ^ “Evidence of Ancient Aliens?”. History.com. December 25, 2010.
  4. ^ Barb (December 4, 2010). “December 4, 2010, Giorgio Tsoukalos, “Ancient Aliens” & “Twilight of the Gods””(podcast). Radio Amerika Now. Retrieved June 20, 2011.
  5. ^ “Obituary of C. Scott Littleton”. Anthropology News 52 (2): 31–32. February 17, 2011. doi:10.1111/j.1556-3502.2011.52231.x.
  6. ^ “TV Ratings for October 29, 2010”. TV By the Numbers.
  7. ^ “TV Ratings for December 17, 2010”. TV By the Numbers.
  8. ^ “TV Ratings for January 27, 2011”. TV By the Numbers.
  9. ^ “TV Ratings for January 28th, 2011”. Inside TV Ratings.
  10. ^ SH (April 30, 2011). “Ancient Aliens”. The Daily Telegraph (London). p. 38.
  11. ^ Clay, Joe (April 30, 2011). “Digital Choices”. The Times (London). p. 35.
  12. ^ Ryan, Andrew (April 25, 2011). “Tonight on TV/Critical Picks”. The Globe and Mail (Canada). p. R2.
  13. ^ a b Fritze, Ronald H. (November 2009). “On the Perils and Pleasures of Confronting Pseudohistory”. Historically Speaking 10 (5): 2–5. ISSN 1941-4188.
  14. ^ Fritze, Ronald. “Ronald H. Fritze, On his book Invented Knowledge: False History, Fake Science and Pseudo-Religions, Cover Interview”. July 08, 2009. Rorotoko.com. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  15. ^ Lockwood, Brad. “High Ratings Aside, Where’s the History on History?”. October 17, 2011 (Forbes). RetrievedMarch 21, 2012.
  16. ^ Knapp, Alex (September 19, 2011). “An Archaeologist Watches the History Channel and Questions the Part About the Aliens”. Tech (Forbes.com). Retrieved February 7,2013.
  17. ^ Switek, Brian. “The Idiocy, Fabrications and Lies of Ancient Aliens”. May 11, 2012. Smithsonian.com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  18. ^ “About Brian Switek”. March 2, 2012. Smithsonian.com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.[dead link]
  19. ^ Feder, K. (1990). Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology. New York, McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. isbn=978-0078116971.
  20. ^ Ancient Alien Astronauts: Interview with Ken Feder.Skeptic.com archive. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
  21. ^ Isler, Ramsey. “South Park: “A History Channel Thanksgiving” Review”. IGN Television Reviews. IGN Entertainment. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
  22. ^ “Katy Perry Talks Body Image, Fame and Politics in Rolling Stone Cover Story”. June 22, 2011. Rolling Stone. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
  23. ^ Howard, Pat. “Ellen TV Talk Show Recap March 8, 2012”. March 8, 2012. Recapo, Talk Show Recaps & News 24/7. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
  24. ^ “Aliens and Cover Ups”. Ancient Aliens: Episode Info.MSN TV. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
  25. ^ “Alien Power Plants”. Ancient Aliens: Episode Info. MSN TV. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
  26. ^ “Destination Orion”. Ancient Aliens: Episode Info. MSN TV. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
  27. ^ “The Einstein Factor”. Ancient Aliens: Episode Info.MSN TV. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
  28. ^ “Secrets of the Tombs”. Ancient Aliens: Episode Info.MSN TV. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
  29. ^ “Prophets and Prophecies”. Ancient Aliens – Season 5 Episode Guide. History. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
  30. ^ “The Mystery of Nazca”. Ancient Aliens – Season 5 Episode Guide. History. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
  31. ^ “Ancient Abductions”. Ancient Aliens – Season 5 Episode Guide. History. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q “Ancient Aliens Episode Guide”. History channel. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x “Shows A-Z – ancient aliens on h2”. the Futon Critic. RetrievedOctober 25, 2014.
  34. ^ “LocateTV”. http://www.LocateTV.com. Retrieved March 12,2014.
  35. ^ a b c “Ancient Aliens Episode Guide – Season 6 – History.com”. http://www.History.com. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
General references

External links[edit]

Dipublikasi di Uncategorized | 1 Komentar

Bagaimana caranya keluar dari Bumi jika terjadi sesuatu yang fatal.

Pertanyaan: Menurut pak de Ibnu:  Bumi bagaikan debu di Alam Semesta namun sangat langka karena bumi memiliki biosfera yang memungkinkan terjadinya living organisme diantaranya manusia. Berdasar argumentasi tsb,  maka bumi akan dipadati oleh living organisme sehingga akan terjadi krisis energi dan bahan makanan dan papan. Berbagai usaha telah dilakukan oleh manusia, diantaranya Keluarga Berencana menggali potensi yang masih mungkin dimanfaatkan diantaranya potensi energi terbarukan dan energi nuklir, upaya untuk berimigrasi ke planet lain. Mungkinkah upaya manusia yang ditunjang oleh kemajuan teknologi berbasis Science yang materialistik  dapat mengatasi populasi dunia dan mengatasi masalah energi dan persediaan kebutuhan hidup penduduk dunia? Apa dampaknya jika upaya itu gagal? Upaya apa saja untuk menghindari dampak kepadatan populasi dunia diluar upaya tersebut diatas? Apakah bumi akan mengalami malapetaka besar yang identik dengan istilah kiamat dunia?

Jawaban: Pak de menginforamsikan: Rasa takut lebih “menyiksa” dibanding apa yang akan terjadi yang sebenarnya. Menakuti seseorang sama halnya melakukan teror mental. Untuk itu ada berbagai cara untuk mengatasi/melawan teror mental itu:
1. Bagi yang beragama langit (RS)  seharusnya yakin seandainya terjadi kiamat bumi atau kiamat Alam Semesta yang ikut hancur hanya jazatnya, ruhnya sanggup kembali ke Alam Abadi lewat Alam Gaib. Namun harus disadari di sana bukan hanya tersedia surga melainkan juga tersedia neraka. Untuk menghindari neraka hingga selamat sampai ke surga telah tersedia jalan sesuai dengan RS (khususnya Agama Bumi). Jadi dari pada ketakutan akan lebih baik mencari pahala dan menghindarkan diri dari berbuat dosa.
2. Bagi yang beragama bumi seharusnya yakin seandainya dunia dipadati oleh living organisme yang membutuhkan tempat, enegi dan makanan, maka yang akan punah menderika hanya  tubuhnya sedangkan yang mengendalikan tubuh, yaitu spirit akan kembali menjadi living astral body yang sanggup berkelana ke segenap bagian Alam Semesta untuk memperoleh bagian Alam Semesta yang memiliki biosfera untuk memperoleh organisme baru agar sanggup melakukan proses reinkarnasi.

Menurut Teori Paralogika, RB merupakan interaksi semi vitalistik antara organisme dengan spirit, sedangkan WB merupakan interaksi vitalistik  organisme dengan soul. Bagi RB tersedia berbagai agama bumi dan Spiritual Ilmiah (SS) agar tidak takut pada kepadatan dunia dan kekurangan energi, sebab spirit hanya membutuhkan energi transenden diantaranya cahaya yang melimpah di Alam Semesta yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebelum sanggup memperoleh bagian Alam Semesta yang memiliki biosfera.
3. Bagi yang materialis memang kepadatan dunia, kekurangan energi fisika , kekurangan bahan makanan/ bio energi sangat mengerikan, sebab mereka tidak mengakui adanya soul dan spirit, jiwa dianggap sebagai bagian dari organisme, sehingga hancurnya organisme berarti hancurnya jiwa. Mereka harus menyelamatkan organismenya demi menyelamatkan jiwanya. Itulah sebabnya mereka berusaha migrasi ke planet lain yang dekat letaknya, sebab pesawat antariksa yang memiliki massa sangat lambat sedangkan tubuh manusia membutuhkan berbagai macam energi dalam perjalanan menuju ke planet lain. Yang mereka harapkan adalah ber migrasi ke Mars, planet yang sangat dekat dengan bumi , sehingga mereka berupaya mempelajari Mars untuk menentukan apakah planet tetangga ini memiliki biosfera, tanpa adanya biosfera mustahil manusia yang bertubuh organisme sanggup hidup di Mars.

4. Yang sangat tidak masuk akal adalah mengirim satelit ke planet Pluto yang teramat jauh, sebab seandainya Pluto memiliki biosfera letaknya sangat jauh dari bumi dan planet ini sangat kecil. Bermigrasi ke Pluno dengan membawa living organisme tak semudah membawa peralatan fisika (termasuk robot). Namun Science meyakini bahwa objek di Alam Semesta yang teramat jauh dapat ditempuh melewati lubang cacing berdasar Teori Relativitas. Jika teori Relativitas benar maka seharusnya mereka yang materialistik tak usah khawatir akan kehancuran bumi, sistem tata surya bahkan galaksi Bimasakti. Mereka tak usah bersusah payah membuat kendaraan ruang angkasa yang harus mengarungi bagian Alam Semesta yang teramat luas, cukup melalui lobang cacing.

Dari analisa pak de diatas seharusnya manusia tidak usah ketakutan jika kosisten pada “keyakinan” masing-masing, baik yang beragama langit (RS), beragama bumi (SS) maupun yang materialis (MS) , masing-masing memiliki “keyakinan” untuk tidak perlu ketakutan pada masa depannya karena meyakini sanggup keluar dari permasalahan bumi berdasar keyakinan masing-masing.

Perang merupakan penyelesaian masalah kepadatan bumi secara alami, namun akibat perang itulah yang harus dipertimbangkan. Perang tidak akan menghancurkan seluruh isi bumi, menyisakan sebagian penghuni bumi sehingga sangat mengerikan. Namun perang ada hikmahnya, sebab akan menyadarkan manusia agar tidak saling berebut kepentingan hingga saling menghancurkan melainkan berlaku sithik eding , genti genten atau dewe-dewe (mengurusi diri, jenis dan lingkungan masing-masing) sehingga terhindar dari tiji-tipeh (kill or to be killed) .

Hikmah dari perang adalah menyadarkan manusia agar mengutamakan kepentingan yang lebih besar dari pada kepentingan individu dan kelompok, yaitu kepentingan bersama.

Perang juga bertujuan melakukan perubahan tatanan yang sudah tidak sesuai lagi dengan  perkembangan zaman dengan membuat tatanan baru yang diinginkan oleh manusia.

Menurut Teori Som Wyn:  Tuhan YME (hasil akal budi manusia)

1. Menyediakan segalanya yang tak diinginkan dan yang diinginkan oleh ciptaan Nya (termasuk manusia).

2.Memberikan kesadaram kepada isi macrocosmos untuk mengurusi diri, jenis dan lingkungannya.

3. Memberikan pilihan untuk menjadi pemimpin yang sanggup mengatuur umatnya, menjadi pengikut yang taat pada pimpinannya atau mandiri karena telah dibekali kesadaran untuk mengurusi diri, jenis dan lingkungannya.

4. Tuhan YME tidak mengatur segalanya  melainkan menentukan segalanya.  Semua yang terjadi adalah ulah ciptaan Nya namun pasti telah memperoleh izin Nya.

5. Izin itu hanya akan diberikan kepada ciptaan Nya yang berusaha untuk mewujutkan keinginannya dan berani menanggung risikonya. JikaTuhan YME  telah memberikan izin, namun tidak dimanfaatkan karena  tak berani menanggung risikonya, maka izin itu boleh saja tidak dimanfaatkan. Ini Bukti bahwa Tuhan YME tidak pernah memaksakan kehendak Nya.

Sebagai contoh, mansia telah sanggup memanfaatkan energi nuklir namun jika tidak berani menanggung risiko penggunaannya, maka izin penggunaan energi nuklir akan tidak dimanfaatkan.

Disamping macrocosmos Alam Semesta juga terisi microcosmos yang merupakan interaksi body yang tersusun dari energy dan soul yang merupakan bagian dari non energy.

Macrocosmos bersifat universal sedangkan microcosmos bersifat individual.

Macrocosmos terdiri dari Sub Alam Gaib, Sub Alam metafisika, Sub Alam Transenden, Sub Alam Fisika dan Sub Alam Organsime.

Microcosmos tersusun dari: 1. Living organisme. 2 Living Astral Body.  3. Living Dark Body. 4. Licing Bright Body. 5. Talent Body.   6. Holly Body dan 7. Non Body.

Manusia termasuk Living Organisme sehingga hanya mungkin hidup di bagian Alam Semesta yang memiliki biosfera, sehingga mengalami biorithmic, kondisi sadar dan bawah sadar. Dalam kondisi sadar  semua aktivitas tubuh dikendalikan oleh otak sedangkan  dalam kondisi bawah sadar aktivitas tubuh dikendalikan oleh sumsum tulang belakang dan organ-organ tubuh yang saat otak dalam kondisi beristirahat memungkinkan organisme masih sanggup bertahan hidup, misalnya:  detak jantung, pernafasan, kelenjar metabolisme dan bagian tubuh  yang tidak secara langsung dikendalikan oleh otak.

 

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Dunia paralel:

Ini kutipan mengenai dunia paralel

Interaksi Dunia Paralel, Ilmuwan Akui Kehidupan Lain

Para ilmuwan yang terlibat antara lain Profesor Howard Wiseman, Dr Michael Hall dari Pusat Griffith, dan Dr Dirk-Andre Deckert dari University of California. Mereka mengungkap interaksi dunia paralel dari ranah fiksi ilmiah menjadi ilmu pasti, dimana hasil penelitian ini diterbitkan dalam jurnal Physical Review X edisi akhir October lalu.

Teori Interaksi Dunia Paralel

Pada awalnya, Hugh Everett telah mengusulkan versi teori beberapa-dunia (many-worlds interpretation) semuanya memiliki satu ide kunci, yaitu persamaan fisika dimana model sistem waktu evolusi tanpa pengamat tertanam pada sistem pemodelan yang memang mengandung pengamat. Kesimpulan teori ini, bahwa alam semesta (multiverse) terdiri dari superposisi kuantum yang sangat banyak, bahkan mungkin tak terhingga, semakin divergen, tanpa berkomunikasi di alam semesta paralel atau dunia kuantum. Ide teori Many World Interpretation berasal dari Everett Princeton PhD, sebuah tesis yang diterbitkannya berjudul ‘The Theory of the Universal Wavefunction’ dikembangkan berdasarkan tesis yang ditulis oleh John Archibald Wheeler.
Dalam hal kemampuan untuk mendekati teori evolusi kuantum, dengan menggunakan teori interaksi dunia paralel terbatas akan memiliki konsekuensi signifikan dalam dinamika molekul, hal ini penting untuk memahami reaksi kimia dan cara kerjanya. Profesor Bill Poirier telah mengamati dan mengatakan bahwa semua ini merupakan ide besar, tidak hanya konseptual tetapi juga berkaitan dengan terobosan numerik baru yang hampir pasti.
Dunia Paralel, Alice in Wonderland
Tim ilmuwan mengusulkan, bahwa alam semesta paralel benar-benar bisa ditemukan, dan tentu saja manusia bisa berinteraksi. Dengan kata lain berkembang secara mandiri dimana dunia terdekat mempengaruhi satu sama lain melalui kekuatan halus yang bertolak belakang. Mereka menunjukkan bahwa teori interaksi dunia paralel sepertinya bisa menjelaskan segala sesuatu yang aneh tentang mekanika kuantum.
Teori kuantum sangat diperlukan untuk mengungkap tentang bagaimana alam semesta bisa menjelaskan dalam skala mikroskopik dan berlaku untuk semua materi. Tapi semua itu sangat sulit, dalam hal memahami dan menunjukkan fenomena aneh yang tampaknya melanggar hukum sebab-akibat. Salah satu teori terkemuka yang diungkap Richard Feynman disebutkan bahwa tidak ada orang yang memahami mekanika kuantum. Tetapi, pendekatan yang dikembangkan ilmuwan Griffith University memberi perspektif baru dikalangan ilmuwan dan pengetahuan fisika.
Profesor Wiseman menegaskan bahwa, ide dunia paralel dalam mekanika kuantum telah dicetuskan sejak tahun 1957. Berbagai teori dan interpretasi terkenal tentang alam semesta dan cabang kelompok semesta baru, hal ini dikemukakan setiap kali pengukuran kuantum. Berbagai kalangan ilmuwan dari dulu hingga saat ini mempertanyakan realitas alam semesta lain, atau bahkan tidak benar-benar ada karena mereka tidak mempengaruhi alam semesta kita. Sehingga pada titik ini, pendekatan yang diungkap para ilmuwan sama sekali berbeda seperti yang diungkap Profesor Wiseman dan rekannya;

Bahwa alam semesta tempat kita berteduh hanyalah salah satu dari beberapa yang terbesar di alam semesta. Beberapa diantaranya hampir sama dengan dunia kita, sementara sebagian besar sangat berbeda. Semua dunia paralel sama-sama nyata, terus menerus melewati waktu dan memiliki sifat yang didefinisikan secara tegas. Semua fenomena kuantum muncul dari kekuatan universal yang saling bertolak belakang, antara yang setara dengan dunia kita dan cenderung membuatnya lebih berbeda. 

Menurut Dr Balai, teori interaksi dunia paralel bisa saja menciptakan kemungkinan yang luar biasa, khususnya dari pengujian keberadaan dunia lain. Seniman fisika ini membuka pendekatan baru, bahwa jika teori mengungkap hanya ada satu dunia akan mengurangi hukum mekanika Newton, sedangkan jika ada beberapa dunia paralel lain akan menciptakan mekanika kuantum.
Apa yang mungkin bisa memprediksi hal itu? Pastinya bukan berdasarkan teori Newton ataupun teori kuantum. Para ilmuwan meyakini, bahwa dalam memberikan gambaran mental yang baru tentang efek kuantum akan berguna dalam percobaan dan perencanaan interaksi dunia paralel, guna menguji dan mengeksploitasi fenomena kuantum

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Ternyata Einstein yang benar!

Pertanyaan: Menurut Oom Som waktu berjalan maju secara linier sedangkan menurut Einstein waktu dapat diperpanjang, diperpendek, dihentikan bahkan diputar balikkan.

Saya baca tulisan di face book pertanyaaan oom Som kepada dik Sigit yang tinggal di Winsor USA dan dik Bagus yang tinggal di Brisbane AUS, ternyata ada “selisih waktu tujuh jam”  lamanya ibadah puasa di kedua tempat tsb. Nah, sudah terbukti waktu di Winsor dan Brisbane berselisih tujuh jam lamanya.  Ini artinya panjangnya waktu di kedua tempat berbeda. Kesimpulannya Einstein yang benar!

Mohon oom Som mempertanggung jawabkan  Teori Minimalis gagasan oom Som  agar  yang saya banggakan tidak dikatakan gila karena tak sanggup meyakinkan orang lain, termasuk saya.

Jawaban: He,he……….. dik Sigit yang pengagum  Einstein pasti tersenyum sinis! Lain dengan dik Bagus mungkin masih dapat berlaku objektif.

Saya beri kesempatan kepada dik Bagus atau yang lainnya untuk menjelaskan mengapa lamanya waktu berpuasa di Winsor  lebih panjang 7 jam dibanding lamanya waktu berpuasa di Brisbane.

Dik Bagus tidak berminat menjelaskan fenomena itu, maka oom Som akan menjelaskan:

Dunia ini bulat, berputar (berotasi) pada porosnya dan bervolusi mengelilingi matahari pada orbitnya. Poros bumi condong terhadap bidang orbit bumi sehingga matahari dipandang dari bumi berpindah-pindah ke arah selatan dan ke arah utara menyebabkan kecepatan relative putaran matahari mengelingi bumi berbeda-beda pada berbagai titik pada  garis  lintang bumi,  di katulistiwa kecepatsannya maksimum, sedangnya semakin mendekati kutub bumi kecepatannya semakin kecil.

Seandainya matahari tidak bergeser letaknya, karena poros bumi tegak lurus bidang orbitnya, matahari akan  selalu diatas katulistiwa, maka kecepatan nya akan sama dipandang dari garis lintang yang sama. Tempat yang terletak pada  garis bujur yang sama akan memiliki waktu (saat) yang sama.

Yang harus difahami,  setiap sekali rotasi bumi membutuhkan waktu 24 jam, artinya sudut putar bumi   sama disemua tempat , namun karena  keliling permukaan bumi berbeda-beda   diberbagai garis lintang  yang berbeda , maka   kecepatan “geser” (v)  matahari dilihat dari bumi diberbagai garis lintang berbeda besarnya (kebalikan kecepatan tangensial titik dipermukaan bumi) , namun  berjalannya (atau urutan waktu) semua tempat di bumi bahkan diseluruh alam semesta dinyatakan dengan dimensi waktu yang sama ,  urutannya: detik, menit, jam, hari, minggu, bulan, tahun, abat…………….  berjalan maju secara linier sebab dimensi waktu berdasar TM tidak terkait dengan dimensi ruang, sebagai yang dinyatakan oleh Teori Relativitas.

Teori Relativitas Einstein  menggabungkan dimensi ruang dengan dimensi waktu menjadi dimensi ruang waktu sehingga terbentuklah dimensi turunan  v = S / t, dimana v = kecepatan titik yang bergerak , S =  arak yang ditempuh dalam kurun waktu t  dan t = waktu yang dibutuhkan titik bergeser sebesar S.

Kesimpulan: yang berbeda  bukan panjang pendeknya  waktu  disetiap bagian bumi  , melainkan kecepatan gerak titik (tempat) mengelilingi permukaan bumi akibat perbedaan titik lintangnya. Titik di katulistiwa bergerak lebih cepat dibanding yang mendekati kutub bumi, namun semua berputar 360 derajat setiap 24 jam.

Ini penjelasan oo Som  mengapa lamanya ibadah puasa  wajib  dalam Agama Islam berbeda diberbagai belahan bumi.

Puasa wajib (termasuk  salah satu  dari Lima Rukun Islam)  dijalankan pada siang hari, menjelang matahari terbit hingga menjelang matahari tenggelam.

Seandainya matahari tetap berputar diatas katulistiwa, maka lamanya berpuasa akan sama diseluruh belahan bumi. Namun apa jadinya jika matahari tetap diatas katulistiwa? Sebagian bumi akan hangus/terbakar dan bagian lain membeku. Jadi bersyukurlah matahari setiap saat bergeser ke utara dan ke  selatan walau berakibat lamanya berpuasa diberbagai belahan bumi berbeda.

Oom Som akan  mencoba menjelaskan perbedaan sudut pandang Teori Minimalis (TM) dengan Teori Relativitas (TR) terhadap dimensi waktu.

1. Teori Minimalis  menginformasikan fenomena Alam Semesta dalam tatanan macrocosmos yang  tersusun dari berbagai jenis energi  berdimensi sebelas dan dalam tatanan microcosmos  berdimensi dua belas karena merupakan interaksi vitalistik dari body yang tersusun dari energi dan soul yang merupakan bagian dari non energy.

TM menginformasikan bahwa waktu merupakan dimensi universal yang berlaku sama diseluruh Alam Semesta di sepanjang zaman karena waktu adalah pembeda antara Alam Semesta dengan Alam Abadi.

Waktu dimulai saat Alam Semesta dipisahkan oleh Tuhan dari Alam Abadi yang tidak berdimensi dengan diberikan dimensi waktu (t). Kemudian waktu berjalan maju secara linier dari 0  detik (t=0)  saat  Alam Semesta hanya berdimensi waktu t, kemudian berkembang menjadi berdimensi lainnya: x,y,e,q,(e),(q), …….. hingga m, l,w dan h. Sehingga menurut TM Alam Semesta yang berupa macrocosmos berdimensi 11. Menurut TM Plus di Alam Semesta juga terdapat non energi, diantarana z (soul) yang berinteraksi vitalistik dengan body yang tersusun dari energi membentuk microcosmos yang berdimensi dua belas.

TM tidak menggabungkan  dimensi ruang dengan dimensi  waktu  (membentuk dimensi ruang waktu) melainkan menginformasikan  terjadinya massa  yang merupakan fenomena Sub Alam Fisika  adalah akibat berlakunya dimensi waktu  yang universal di Seluruh Alam Semesta  yang terdiri dari Alam Super yang hanya berdimensi waktu    dan Alam Nyata berdimensi ruang nyata.

Menurut TM gagasan oom Som,  massa membutuhkan ruang nyata,  massa lebih dulu ada sebelum ruang nyata.  Massa membutuhkan ruang nyata,  bukannya massa terjadi akibat penyatuan ruang nyata  dan waktu  menjadi dimensi ruang waktu sebagai yang diajarkan oleh Teori Relativitas Einstein.  Ini bagaikan teka teki telor dan ayam. 

Waktu menurut  TM  adalah sequent atau  urutan suatu proses yang terjadi  di  Alam Semesta yang tidak abadi akibat dikuasai oleh  dimensi waktu. 

Menurut TM massa terjadi sebelum terbentukkan ruang nyata . Massa akan  menyebabkan ruang semu (ruang hampa materi) berubah menjadi ruang nyata (ruang yang terisi materi bermassa).

Teori Minimalis  sanggup menginformasikan terbentuknya massa berdasar Formula Supernatural Modern E = – x + y sedangkan Teori Relativitas Eintein menjelaskan hubungan massa dengan Energi Fisika atas dasar Formula E = mc^2. Jadi kedua teori ini dapat saling melengkapi. Yang menjadikan TM  bertentangan dengan TR adalah sudut pandang mengenai dimensi waktu.

2.Teori Relativitas   menginformasikan Sub Alam Fisika versi TM , yang dianggap sebagai Alam Semesta versi Science.  Teori Relativitas Einstein menggabungkan dimensi waktu dengan dimensi ruang nyata, menjadi dimensi ruang-waktu, sehingga terjadilah dimensi kecepatan v =s/t.  Tujuan  untuk menjelaskan terjadinya massa dari hasil penyatuan dimensi  ruang  waktu. Jadi Teori Relativitas beranggapan  terjadinya massa  setelah terjadi ruang nyata (kebalikan dengan TM).

Teori Relativitas menyatukan dimensi ruang waktu sehingga timbulah berbagai dimensi turunan (diantaranya dimensi kecepatan). Dimensi turunan inilah yang dimanfaatkan oleh Einstein menggagas  dimensi ruang waktu untuk menjelaskan terjadinya massa.

Einstein adalah seorang genius sebab dapat meyakinkan gagasannya yang sebenarnya sangat sulit diterima oleh orang awam untuk meyakinkan para ilmuwan.  Oom Som   belum sanggup meyakinkan gagasan yang sangat sederhana, yaitu Teori Minimalis, sehingga  kemenakan minta oom Som  mempertanggung jawabkan gagasan agar tidak  dianggap gila.

Seandainya oom Som dapat bertemu Einstein, akan oom tanyakan kepada Einstein: “Mengapa Dikau tidak kembali hidup untuk mempertanggung jawabkan teorimu hingga sanggup meyakinkan aku bahwa waktu dapat diputar mundur?”

Jika waktu dapat dipercepat, diperlambat, dihentikan bahkan diputar balikkan, artinya yang telah mati dapat dihidupkan kembali karena waktu yang telah lewat dapat dikembalikan pada waktu sekarang. Mengapa Einstein tidak hidup kembali untuk mempertanggung jawabkan Teori nya  yang sangat tidak masuk makal menurut oom Som. Jika Einstein dapat hidup oom Som baru mempercayai Teori Relativitas yang terkait dengan dimensi waktu.

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Adam dan Hawa jazat dan ruhnya berasal dari surga?

Pertanyaan: Menurut Akungibnu sel berasal dari bumi yang terjadi secara alami, sedangkan menurut Ilmu pengetuan (Science) sel berasal dari luar ruang angkasa jadi mungkin saja sel berasal dari sorga, sehingga Adam dan Hawa bukan hanya ruhnya , melainkan jazat  dan ruhnya benar dari surga sehingga benar  Adam dan Hawa merupakan  manusia pertama di bumi. Bagaimana pendapat Akung?

Jawaban: Boleh saja cucu meyakini Leluhur cucu adalah Adam dan Hawa ( bukan kera) , namun jika jazatnya juga berasal  dari Sorga perlu dipertanyakan: Sorga itu dimana letaknya? Jika cucu menganggap sorga ada di bumi atau di Alam Semesta artinya cucu tak meyakini bahwa di sorga tersedia kebahagiaan abadi. Dunia dan Alam Semesta dinyatakan sebagai Alam Fana (bukan Alam Baka)  yang arrtinya Alam Semesta adalah Alam Yang Tidak Abadi, sedangkan Sorga itu abadi, sehingga disana tersedia kebahagiaan abadi, bukan sekedar kenikmatan sementara.

Ada baiknya akung kutipkan tulisan mengenaik sel (cell) dan molukul:

Perihal sel (cell)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the term in biology. For other uses, see Cell (disambiguation).
Cell
Wilson1900Fig2.jpg

Onion (Allium) cells in different phases of the cell cycle
Celltypes.svg

A eukaryotic cell (left) and a prokaryotic cell (right)
Identifiers
TH H1.00.01.0.00001
FMA 68646
Anatomical terminology

Structure of an animal cell

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning “small room”[1]) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently, and are often called the “building blocks of life”. The study of cells is called cell biology.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains manybiomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.[2] Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) ormulticellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain about 100 trillion(1014) cells.[3] Most plant and animal cells are visible only under the microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres.[4]

The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665, who named the biological unit for its resemblance to cells inhabited by Christian monks in a monastery.[5][6] Cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, that all cells come from preexisting cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.[7] Cells emerged on Earth at least 3.5 billion years ago.[8][9][10]

Anatomy

Comparison of features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
Typical organisms bacteria, archaea protists, fungi, plants, animals
Typical size ~ 1–5 µm[11] ~ 10–100 µm[11]
Type of nucleus nucleoid region; no true nucleus true nucleus with double membrane
DNA circular (usually) linear molecules (chromosomes) with histone proteins
RNA/protein synthesis coupled in the cytoplasm RNA synthesis in the nucleus
protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
Ribosomes 50S and 30S 60S and 40S
Cytoplasmic structure very few structures highly structured by endomembranes and a cytoskeleton
Cell movement flagella made of flagellin flagella and cilia containing microtubules; lamellipodia and filopodiacontaining actin
Mitochondria none one to several thousand (though some lack mitochondria)
Chloroplasts none in algae and plants
Organization usually single cells single cells, colonies, higher multicellular organisms with specialized cells
Cell division Binary fission (simple division) Mitosis (fission or budding)
Meiosis
chromosomes single chromosome more than one chromosome
membranes Cell membrane Cell membrane and membrane-bound organelles

Cells are of two types, eukaryotic, which contain a nucleus, and prokaryotic, which do not. Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms, while eukaryotes can be either single-celled or multicellular.

Prokaryotic cells

Main article: Prokaryote

Diagram of a typical prokaryotic cell

Prokaryotic cells were the first form of life on Earth, characterised by having vital biological processes including cell signaling and being self-sustaining. They are simpler and smaller than eukaryotic cells, and lack membrane-bound organelles such as the nucleus. Prokaryotes include two of the domains of life, bacteria and archaea. The DNA of a prokaryotic cell consists of a single chromosome that is in direct contact with the cytoplasm. The nuclear region in the cytoplasm is called thenucleoid. Most prokaryotes are the smallest of all organisms ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 µm in diameter.[12]

A prokaryotic cell has three architectural regions:

  • On the outside, flagella and pili project from the cell’s surface. These are structures (not present in all prokaryotes) made of proteins that facilitate movement and communication between cells.
  • Enclosing the cell is the cell envelope – generally consisting of a cell wall covering a plasma membrane though some bacteria also have a further covering layer called a capsule. The envelope gives rigidity to the cell and separates the interior of the cell from its environment, serving as a protective filter. Though most prokaryotes have a cell wall, there are exceptions such as Mycoplasma (bacteria) and Thermoplasma(archaea). The cell wall consists of peptidoglycan in bacteria, and acts as an additional barrier against exterior forces. It also prevents the cell from expanding and bursting (cytolysis) from osmotic pressure due to a hypotonic environment. Some eukaryotic cells (plant cells and fungal cells) also have a cell wall.
  • Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that contains the genome (DNA), ribosomes and various sorts of inclusions. The genetic material is freely found in the cytoplasm. Prokaryotes can carry extrachromosomal DNA elements calledplasmids, which are usually circular. Linear bacterial plasmids have been identified in several species of spirochetebacteria, including members of the genus Borrelia notably Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease.[13] Though not forming a nucleus, the DNA is condensed in a nucleoid. Plasmids encode additional genes, such as antibiotic resistance genes.

Eukaryotic cells

Main article: Eukaryote

Structure of a typical animal cell

Structure of a typical plant cell

Plants, animals, fungi, slime moulds, protozoa, and algae are all eukaryotic. These cells are about fifteen times wider than a typical prokaryote and can be as much as a thousand times greater in volume. The main distinguishing feature of eukaryotes as compared to prokaryotes iscompartmentalization: the presence of membrane-bound organelles(compartments) in which specific metabolic activities take place. Most important among these is a cell nucleus, an organelle that houses the cell’s DNA. This nucleus gives the eukaryote its name, which means “true kernel (nucleus)”. Other differences include:

  • The plasma membrane resembles that of prokaryotes in function, with minor differences in the setup. Cell walls may or may not be present.
  • The eukaryotic DNA is organized in one or more linear molecules, called chromosomes, which are associated with histone proteins. All chromosomal DNA is stored in the cell nucleus, separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane. Some eukaryotic organelles such asmitochondria also contain some DNA.
  • Many eukaryotic cells are ciliated with primary cilia. Primary cilia play important roles in chemosensation, mechanosensation, and thermosensation. Cilia may thus be “viewed as a sensory cellularantennae that coordinates a large number of cellular signaling pathways, sometimes coupling the signaling to ciliary motility or alternatively to cell division and differentiation.”[14]
  • Eukaryotes can move using motile cilia or flagella. Eukaryotic flagella are less complex than those of prokaryotes.

Subcellular components

Illustration depicting major structures inside a eukaryotic animal cell

All cells, whether prokaryotic or eukaryotic, have a membrane that envelops the cell, regulates what moves in and out (selectively permeable), and maintains the electric potential of the cell. Inside the membrane, a salty cytoplasm takes up most of the cell’s volume. All cells (except red blood cells which lack a cell nucleus and most organelles to accommodate maximum space for hemoglobin) possess DNA, the hereditary material of genes, and RNA, containing the information necessary tobuild various proteins such as enzymes, the cell’s primary machinery. There are also other kinds of biomolecules in cells. This article lists these primary components of the cell, then briefly describes their function.

Membrane

Main article: Cell membrane

The cell membrane, or plasma membrane, is a biological membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell. In animals, the plasma membrane is the outer boundary of the cell, while in plants and prokaryotes it is usually covered by a cell wall. This membrane serves to separate and protect a cell from its surrounding environment and is made mostly from a double layer of phospholipids, which are amphiphilic (partly hydrophobic and partly hydrophilic). Hence, the layer is called a phospholipid bilayer, or sometimes a fluid mosaic membrane. Embedded within this membrane is a variety of protein molecules that act as channels and pumps that move different molecules into and out of the cell. The membrane is said to be ‘semi-permeable’, in that it can either let a substance (molecule or ion) pass through freely, pass through to a limited extent or not pass through at all. Cell surface membranes also contain receptor proteins that allow cells to detect external signaling molecules such as hormones.

Cytoskeleton

Main article: Cytoskeleton

A fluorescent image of an endothelial cell. Nuclei are stained blue, mitochondria are stained red, and microfilaments are stained green.

The cytoskeleton acts to organize and maintain the cell’s shape; anchors organelles in place; helps during endocytosis, the uptake of external materials by a cell, and cytokinesis, the separation of daughter cells after cell division; and moves parts of the cell in processes of growth and mobility. The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments andmicrotubules. There are a great number of proteins associated with them, each controlling a cell’s structure by directing, bundling, and aligning filaments. The prokaryotic cytoskeleton is less well-studied but is involved in the maintenance of cell shape, polarity and cytokinesis.[15] The subunit protein of microfilaments is a small, monomeric protein called actin. The subunit of microtubules is a dimeric molecule called tubulin. Intermediate filaments are heteropolymers whose subunits vary among the cell types in different tissues. But some of the subunit protein of intermediate filaments include vimentin, desmin, lamin(lamins A, B and C), keratin (multiple acidic and basic keratins), neurofilament proteins (NF – L, NF – M).

Genetic material

Two different kinds of genetic material exist: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Cells use DNA for their long-term information storage. The biological information contained in an organism is encoded in its DNA sequence. RNA is used for information transport (e.g., mRNA) and enzymatic functions (e.g., ribosomal RNA). Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are used to add amino acids during protein translation.

Prokaryotic genetic material is organized in a simple circular DNA molecule (the bacterial chromosome) in the nucleoid region of the cytoplasm. Eukaryotic genetic material is divided into different, linear molecules called chromosomes inside a discrete nucleus, usually with additional genetic material in some organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts (seeendosymbiotic theory).

A human cell has genetic material contained in the cell nucleus (the nuclear genome) and in the mitochondria (themitochondrial genome). In humans the nuclear genome is divided into 46 linear DNA molecules called chromosomes, including 22 homologous chromosome pairs and a pair of sex chromosomes. The mitochondrial genome is a circular DNA molecule distinct from the nuclear DNA. Although the mitochondrial DNA is very small compared to nuclear chromosomes, it codes for 13 proteins involved in mitochondrial energy production and specific tRNAs.

Foreign genetic material (most commonly DNA) can also be artificially introduced into the cell by a process calledtransfection. This can be transient, if the DNA is not inserted into the cell’s genome, or stable, if it is. Certain viruses also insert their genetic material into the genome.

Organelles

Main article: Organelle

Organelles are parts of the cell which are adapted and/or specialized for carrying out one or more vital functions, analogous to the organs of the human body (such as the heart, lung, and kidney, with each organ performing a different function). Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have organelles, but prokaryotic organelles are generally simpler and are not membrane-bound.

There are several types of organelles in a cell. Some (such as the nucleus and golgi apparatus) are typically solitary, while others (such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, peroxisomes and lysosomes) can be numerous (hundreds to thousands). Thecytosol is the gelatinous fluid that fills the cell and surrounds the organelles.

Eukaryotic

Human cancer cells with nuclei (specifically the DNA) stained blue. The central and rightmost cell are in interphase, so the entire nuclei are labeled. The cell on the left is going through mitosis and its DNA has condensed.

  • Cell nucleus: A cell’s information center, the cell nucleus is the most conspicuous organelle found in a eukaryotic cell. It houses the cell’schromosomes, and is the place where almost all DNA replication and RNAsynthesis (transcription) occur. The nucleus is spherical and separated from the cytoplasm by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope isolates and protects a cell’s DNA from various molecules that could accidentally damage its structure or interfere with its processing. During processing, DNA is transcribed, or copied into a special RNA, calledmessenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA is then transported out of the nucleus, where it is translated into a specific protein molecule. Thenucleolus is a specialized region within the nucleus where ribosome subunits are assembled. In prokaryotes, DNA processing takes place in thecytoplasm.
  • Mitochondria and Chloroplasts: generate energy for the cell.Mitochondria are self-replicating organelles that occur in various numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. Respiration occurs in the cell mitochondria, which generate the cell’s energy by oxidative phosphorylation, using oxygen to release energy stored in cellular nutrients (typically pertaining to glucose) to generate ATP. Mitochondria multiply by binary fission, like prokaryotes. Chloroplasts can only be found in plants and algae, and they capture the sun’s energy to make carbohydrates through photosynthesis.

Diagram of an endomembrane system

  • Endoplasmic reticulum: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a transport network for molecules targeted for certain modifications and specific destinations, as compared to molecules that float freely in the cytoplasm. The ER has two forms: the rough ER, which has ribosomes on its surface that secrete proteins into the ER, and the smooth ER, which lacks ribosomes. The smooth ER plays a role in calcium sequestration and release.
  • Golgi apparatus: The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and package the macromolecules such as proteins and lipids that are synthesized by the cell.
  • Lysosomes and Peroxisomes: Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes (acidhydrolases). They digest excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. Peroxisomes have enzymes that rid the cell of toxicperoxides. The cell could not house these destructive enzymes if they were not contained in a membrane-bound system.
  • Centrosome – the cytoskeleton organiser: The centrosome produces the microtubules of a cell – a key component of the cytoskeleton. It directs the transport through the ER and the Golgi apparatus. Centrosomes are composed of twocentrioles, which separate during cell division and help in the formation of the mitotic spindle. A single centrosome is present in the animal cells. They are also found in some fungi and algae cells.
  • Vacuoles: Vacuoles sequester waste products and in plant cells store water. They are often described as liquid filled space and are surrounded by a membrane. Some cells, most notably Amoeba, have contractile vacuoles, which can pump water out of the cell if there is too much water. The vacuoles of eukaryotic cells are usually larger in those of plants than animals.

Eukaryotic and prokaryotic

  • Ribosomes: The ribosome is a large complex of RNA and protein molecules. They each consist of two subunits, and act as an assembly line where RNA from the nucleus is used to synthesise proteins from amino acids. Ribosomes can be found either floating freely or bound to a membrane (the rough endoplasmatic reticulum in eukaryotes, or the cell membrane in prokaryotes).[16]

Structures outside the cell membrane

Many cells also have structures which exist wholly or partially outside the cell membrane. These structures are notable because they are not protected from the external environment by the semipermeable cell membrane. In order to assemble these structures, their components must be carried across the cell membrane by export processes.

Cell wall

Many types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have a cell wall. The cell wall acts to protect the cell mechanically and chemically from its environment, and is an additional layer of protection to the cell membrane. Different types of cell have cell walls made up of different materials; plant cell walls are primarily made up of cellulose, fungi cell walls are made up of chitin and bacteria cell walls are made up of peptidoglycan.

Prokaryotic

Capsule

A gelatinous capsule is present in some bacteria outside the cell membrane and cell wall. The capsule may bepolysaccharide as in pneumococci, meningococci or polypeptide as Bacillus anthracis or hyaluronic acid as in streptococci. Capsules are not marked by normal staining protocols and can be detected by India ink or methyl blue; which allows for higher contrast between the cells for observation.[17]:87

Flagella

Flagella are organelles for cellular mobility. The bacterial flagellum stretches from cytoplasm through the cell membrane(s) and extrudes through the cell wall. They are long and thick thread-like appendages, protein in nature. A different type of flagellum is found in archaea and a different type is found in eukaryotes.

Fimbria

A fimbria also known as a pilus is a short, thin, hair-like filament found on the surface of bacteria. Fimbriae, or pili are formed of a protein called pilin (antigenic) and are responsible for attachment of bacteria to specific receptors of human cell (cell adhesion). There are special types of specific pili involved in bacterial conjugation.

Cellular processes

Growth and metabolism

Main articles: Cell growth and Metabolism

Between successive cell divisions, cells grow through the functioning of cellular metabolism. Cell metabolism is the process by which individual cells process nutrient molecules. Metabolism has two distinct divisions: catabolism, in which the cell breaks down complex molecules to produce energy and reducing power, and anabolism, in which the cell uses energy and reducing power to construct complex molecules and perform other biological functions. Complex sugars consumed by the organism can be broken down into simpler sugar molecules called monosaccharides such as glucose. Once inside the cell, glucose is broken down to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that possesses readily available energy, through two different pathways.

Replication

Bacteria divide by binary fission, while eukaryotes divide by mitosis or meiosis.

Main article: Cell division

Cell division involves a single cell (called a mother cell) dividing into two daughter cells. This leads to growth in multicellular organisms (the growth oftissue) and to procreation (vegetative reproduction) in unicellular organisms.Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission, while eukaryotic cells usually undergo a process of nuclear division, called mitosis, followed by division of the cell, called cytokinesis. A diploid cell may also undergo meiosis to produce haploid cells, usually four. Haploid cells serve as gametes in multicellular organisms, fusing to form new diploid cells.

DNA replication, or the process of duplicating a cell’s genome, always happens when a cell divides through mitosis or binary fission. This occurs during the S phase of the cell cycle.

In meiosis, the DNA is replicated only once, while the cell divides twice. DNA replication only occurs before meiosis I. DNA replication does not occur when the cells divide the second time, in meiosis II.[18] Replication, like all cellular activities, requires specialized proteins for carrying out the job.

Protein synthesis

An overview of protein synthesis.
Within the nucleus of the cell (light blue),genes (DNA, dark blue) are transcribed intoRNA. This RNA is then subject to post-transcriptional modification and control, resulting in a mature mRNA (red) that is then transported out of the nucleus and into thecytoplasm (peach), where it undergoestranslation into a protein. mRNA is translated by ribosomes (purple) that match the three-base codons of the mRNA to the three-base anti-codons of the appropriate tRNA. Newly synthesized proteins (black) are often further modified, such as by binding to an effector molecule (orange), to become fully active.
Main article: Protein biosynthesis

Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for the modulation and maintenance of cellular activities. This process involves the formation of new protein molecules from amino acid building blocks based on information encoded in DNA/RNA. Protein synthesis generally consists of two major steps: transcription and translation.

Transcription is the process where genetic information in DNA is used to produce a complementary RNA strand. This RNA strand is then processed to give messenger RNA (mRNA), which is free to migrate through the cell. mRNA molecules bind to protein-RNA complexes called ribosomes located in thecytosol, where they are translated into polypeptide sequences. The ribosome mediates the formation of a polypeptide sequence based on the mRNA sequence. The mRNA sequence directly relates to the polypeptide sequence by binding to transfer RNA (tRNA) adapter molecules in binding pockets within the ribosome. The new polypeptide then folds into a functional three-dimensional protein molecule.

Movement or motility

Main article: Motility

Unicellular organisms can move in order to find food or escape predators. Common mechanisms of motion include flagella and cilia.

In multicellular organisms, cells can move during processes such as wound healing, the immune response and cancer metastasis. For example, in wound healing in animals, white blood cells move to the wound site to kill the microorganisms that cause infection. Cell motility involves many receptors, crosslinking, bundling, binding, adhesion, motor and other proteins.[19] The process is divided into three steps – protrusion of the leading edge of the cell, adhesion of the leading edge and de-adhesion at the cell body and rear, and cytoskeletal contraction to pull the cell forward. Each step is driven by physical forces generated by unique segments of the cytoskeleton.[20][21]

Multicellularity

Cell specialization

Staining of a Caenorhabditis elegans which highlights the nuclei of its cells.

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to single-celled organisms.[22]

In complex multicellular organisms, cells specialize into different cell types that are adapted to particular functions. In mammals, major cell types include skin cells,muscle cells, neurons, blood cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and others. Cell types differ both in appearance and function, yet are genetically identical. Cells are able to be of the same genotype but of different cell type due to the differential expressionof the genes they contain.

Most distinct cell types arise from a single totipotent cell, called a zygote, thatdifferentiates into hundreds of different cell types during the course of development. Differentiation of cells is driven by different environmental cues (such as cell–cell interaction) and intrinsic differences (such as those caused by the uneven distribution of molecules during division).

Origin of multicellularity

Multicellularity has evolved independently at least 25 times,[23] including in some prokaryotes, like cyanobacteria, myxobacteria, actinomycetes, Magnetoglobus multicellularis or Methanosarcina. However, complex multicellular organisms evolved only in six eukaryotic groups: animals, fungi, brown algae, red algae, green algae, and plants.[24] It evolved repeatedly for plants (Chloroplastida), once or twice foranimals, once for brown algae, and perhaps several times for fungi, slime molds, and red algae.[25] Multicellularity may have evolved from colonies of interdependent organisms, from cellularization, or from organisms in symbiotic relationships.

The first evidence of multicellularity is from cyanobacteria-like organisms that lived between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.[23]Other early fossils of multicellular organisms include the contested Grypania spiralis and the fossils of the black shales of the Palaeoproterozoic Francevillian Group Fossil B Formation in Gabon.[26]

The evolution of multicellularity from unicellular ancestors has been replicated in the laboratory, in evolution experimentsusing predation as the selective pressure.[23]

Origins

The origin of cells has to do with the origin of life, which began the history of life on Earth.

Origin of the first cell

Stromatolites are left behind bycyanobacteria, also called blue-green algae. They are the oldest known fossils of life on Earth. This one-billion-year-old fossil is fromGlacier National Park in the United States.

Further information: Abiogenesis and Evolution of cells

There are several theories about the origin of small molecules that led to life on the early Earth. They may have been carried to Earth on meteorites (seeMurchison meteorite), created at deep-sea vents, or synthesized by lightning in a reducing atmosphere (see Miller–Urey experiment). There is little experimental data defining what the first self-replicating forms were. RNA is thought to be the earliest self-replicating molecule, as it is capable of both storing genetic information and catalyzing chemical reactions (see RNA world hypothesis), but some other entity with the potential to self-replicate could have preceded RNA, such as clay or peptide nucleic acid.[27]

Cells emerged at least 3.5 billion years ago.[8][9][10] The current belief is that these cells were heterotrophs. The early cell membranes were probably more simple and permeable than modern ones, with only a single fatty acid chain per lipid. Lipids are known to spontaneously form bilayered vesicles in water, and could have preceded RNA, but the first cell membranes could also have been produced by catalytic RNA, or even have required structural proteins before they could form.[28]

Origin of eukaryotic cells

The eukaryotic cell seems to have evolved from a symbiotic community of prokaryotic cells. DNA-bearing organelles like themitochondria and the chloroplasts are descended from ancient symbiotic oxygen-breathing proteobacteria andcyanobacteria, respectively, which were endosymbiosed by an ancestral archaean prokaryote.

There is still considerable debate about whether organelles like the hydrogenosome predated the origin of mitochondria, or vice versa: see the hydrogen hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotic cells.

History of research

See also

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b “Cell”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
  2. Jump up^ Cell Movements and the Shaping of the Vertebrate Body in Chapter 21 of Molecular Biology of the Cell fourth edition, edited by Bruce Alberts (2002) published by Garland Science.
    The Alberts text discusses how the “cellular building blocks” move to shape developing embryos. It is also common to describe small molecules such as amino acids as “molecular building blocks“.
  3. Jump up^ Lodish (2007). Molecular Cell Biology,6e. W.H.Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-7601-4.
  4. Jump up^ Campbell, Neil A.; Brad Williamson; Robin J. Heyden (2006). Biology: Exploring Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-250882-6.
  5. Jump up^ Karp, Gerald (19 October 2009). Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. John Wiley & Sons. p. 2.ISBN 9780470483374. Hooke called the pores cells because they re- minded him of the cells inhabited by monks living in a monastery.
  6. Jump up^ Alan Chong Tero (1990). Achiever’s Biology. Allied Publishers. p. 36. ISBN 9788184243697. In 1665, an Englishman, Robert Hooke observed a thin slice of” cork under a simple microscope. (A simple microscope is a microscope with only one biconvex lens, rather like a magnifying glass). He saw many small box like structures. These reminded him of small rooms called “cells” in which Christian monks lived and meditated.
  7. Jump up^ Maton, Anthea; Hopkins, Jean Johnson, Susan LaHart, David Quon Warner, Maryanna Wright, Jill D (1997). Cells Building Blocks of Life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-423476-6.
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b Schopf, JW, Kudryavtsev, AB, Czaja, AD, and Tripathi, AB. (2007). Evidence of Archean life: Stromatolites and microfossils.Precambrian Research 158:141-155.
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Schopf, JW (2006). Fossil evidence of Archaean life. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 29;361(1470):869-85.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b Peter Hamilton Raven; George Brooks Johnson (2002). Biology. McGraw-Hill Education. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-07-112261-0. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b Campbell Biology—Concepts and Connections. Pearson Education. 2009. p. 320.
  12. Jump up^ Microbiology : Principles and Explorations By Jacquelyn G. Black
  13. Jump up^ European Bioinformatics Institute, Karyn’s Genomes: Borrelia burgdorferi, part of 2can on the EBI-EMBL database. Retrieved 5 August 2012
  14. Jump up^ Satir, Peter; Christensen, ST; Søren T. Christensen (2008-03-26). “Structure and function of mammalian cilia”. Histochemistry and Cell Biology (Springer Berlin/Heidelberg) 129 (6): 687–693. doi:10.1007/s00418-008-0416-9. PMC 2386530.PMID 18365235. 1432-119X. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
  15. Jump up^ Michie K, Löwe J (2006). “Dynamic filaments of the bacterial cytoskeleton”. Annu Rev Biochem 75: 467–92.doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.103004.142452. PMID 16756499.
  16. Jump up^ Ménétret JF, Schaletzky J, Clemons WM, CW; Akey et al. (December 2007). “Ribosome binding of a single copy of the SecY complex: implications for protein translocation”. Mol. Cell 28 (6): 1083–92. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2007.10.034. PMID 18158904.
  17. Jump up^ Prokaryotes. Newnes. Apr 11, 1996. ISBN 9780080984735.
  18. Jump up^ Campbell Biology—Concepts and Connections. Pearson Education. 2009. p. 138.
  19. Jump up^ Revathi Ananthakrishnan1 *, Allen Ehrlicher2 ✉. “The Forces Behind Cell Movement”. Biolsci.org. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
  20. Jump up^ Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J. et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4e. Garland Science. 2002
  21. Jump up^ Ananthakrishnan R, Ehrlicher A. The Forces Behind Cell Movement. Int J Biol Sci 2007; 3:303–317.http://www.biolsci.org/v03p0303.htm
  22. Jump up^ Becker, Wayne M. et al. (2009). The world of the cell. Pearson Benjamin Cummings. p. 480. ISBN 978-0-321-55418-5.
  23. ^ Jump up to:a b c Grosberg RK, Strathmann RR. The evolution of multicellularity: A minor major transition? Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst. 2007;38:621–654.
  24. Jump up^ http://public.wsu.edu/~lange-m/Documnets/Teaching2011/Popper2011.pdf
  25. Jump up^ Bonner, John Tyler (1998). “The Origins of Multicellularity” (PDF, 0.2 MB). Integrative Biology: Issues, News, and Reviews 1 (1): 27–36. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:13.0.CO;2-6. ISSN 1093-4391.
  26. Jump up^ El Albani, Abderrazak; A, Bengtson S, Canfield DE, Bekker A, Macchiarelli R, Mazurier A, Hammarlund EU, Boulvais P, Dupuy JJ, Fontaine C, Fürsich FT, Gauthier-Lafaye F, Janvier P, Javaux E, Ossa FO, Pierson-Wickmann AC, Riboulleau A, Sardini P, Vachard D, Whitehouse M, Meunier A. (1 July 2010). “Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago”. Nature 466 (7302): 100–104. doi:10.1038/nature09166. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 20596019.
  27. Jump up^ Orgel LE (1998). “The origin of life–a review of facts and speculations”. Trends Biochem Sci 23 (12): 491–5. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(98)01300-0. PMID 9868373.
  28. Jump up^ Griffiths G (December 2007). “Cell evolution and the problem of membrane topology”. Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 8(12): 1018–24. doi:10.1038/nrm2287. PMID 17971839.
  29. Jump up^ … I could exceedingly plainly perceive it to be all perforated and porous, much like a Honey-comb, but that the pores of it were not regular [..] these pores, or cells, [..] were indeed the first microscopical pores I ever saw, and perhaps, that were ever seen, for I had not met with any Writer or Person, that had made any mention of them before this. . .” – Hooke describing his observations on a thin slice of cork. Robert Hooke

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Apa beda soul dengan: jiwa, ruh, sukma, nyawa, ……dan anime.

Pertanyaan: Menurut pak de  Ibnu microcosmos adalah interaksi antara body yang tersusun dari  energy dan soul yang merupakan bagian dari non energy. Mohon dijelaskan perbedaan antara: soul dengan jiwa, ruh, sukma, nyawa, dan anime.

Jawaban:

Sebagai pembanding istilah TM dengan istilah umum  pak de kutipkan pengertian kata-kata tersebut dari beberapa sumber:

1. Soul

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation).

The soul, in many religious, philosophical and mythological traditions, is the incorporeal and, in many conceptions,immortal essence of a living thing.[1] According to most of the Abrahamic religions, immortal souls belong only to human beings. For example, the Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas attributed “soul” (anima) to all organisms but argued that only human souls are immortal.[2] Other religions (most notably Jainism and Hinduism) teach that all biological organisms have souls, and others teach that even non-biological entities (such as rivers and mountains) possess souls. This latter belief is called animism.[3]

Greek philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle understood the psyche (ψυχή) to be crowned with the logical faculty, the exercise of which was the most divine of human actions. At his defense trial, Socrates even summarized his teachings as nothing other than an exhortation for his fellow Athenians to excel in matters of the psyche since all bodily goods are dependent on such excellence (The Apology 30a–b).

Anima mundi is the concept of a “world soul” connecting all living organisms on the planet.

Linguistic aspects[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Modern English word “soul“, derived from Old English sáwol, sáwel, was first attested to in the 8th-century poemBeowulf v. 2820 and in the Vespasian Psalter 77.50—it is cognate with other Germanic and Baltic terms for the same idea, including Gothic saiwala, Old High German sêula, sêla, Old Saxon sêola, Old Low Franconian sêla, sîla, Old Norse sála andLithuanian siela. Further etymology of the Germanic word is uncertain. The original concept is said to mean originally ‘coming from or belonging to the sea/lake’ because of the Germanic belief in souls being born out of and returning to sacred lakes, c.f., Old Saxon sêola (soul) compared to Old Saxon sêo (sea).

The Koine Greek word ψυχή psychē, “life, spirit, consciousness”, is derived from a verb meaning “to cool, to blow”, and hence refers to the breath, as opposed to σῶμα (“soma”), meaning “body”. Psychē occurs juxtaposed to σῶμα, as seen inMatthew 10:28:

καὶ μὴ φοβεῖσθε ἀπὸ τῶν ἀποκτεννόντων τὸ σῶμα, τὴν δὲ ψυχὴν μὴ δυναμένων ἀποκτεῖναι·

φοβεῖσθε δὲ μᾶλλον τὸν δυνάμενον καὶ ψυχὴν καὶ σῶμα ἀπολέσαι ἐν γεέννῃ.

Vulgate: et nolite timere eos qui occidunt corpus animam autem non possunt occidere sed potius eum timete qui potest et animam et corpus perdere in gehennam.
Authorized King James Version (KJV) “And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear Him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.”

In the Septuagint (LXX), ψυχή translates Hebrew נפש nephesh, meaning “life, vital breath”, and specifically refers to a mortal, physical life, but is in English variously translated as “soul, self, life, creature, person, appetite, mind, living being, desire, emotion, passion”; an example can be found in Genesis 1:20:

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים יִשְׁרְצ֣וּ הַמַּ֔יִם שֶׁ֖רֶץ נֶ֣פֶשׁ חַיָּ֑ה
LXX καὶ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὰ κήτη τὰ μεγάλα καὶ πᾶσαν ψυχὴν ζῴων ἑρπετῶν.
Vulgate Creavitque Deus cete grandia, et omnem animam viventem atque motabilem.
KJV “And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth.”

Paul of Tarsus used ψυχή and πνεῦμα specifically to distinguish between the Jewish notions of נפש nephesh and רוח ruah(spirit) (also in LXX, e.g. Genesis 1:2 וְר֣וּחַאֱלֹהִ֔ים = πνεῦμα θεοῦ = spiritus Dei = “the Spirit of God”).[citation needed]

Philosophical views[edit]

The Ancient Greeks used the word for “alive” to also apply to the concept of being “ensouled“, indicating that the earliest surviving western philosophical view believed that the soul was that which gave the body life. The soul was considered the incorporeal or spiritual “breath” that animates (from the Latin, anima, cf. “animal”) the living organism.[citation needed]

Francis M. Cornford quotes Pindar by saying that the soul sleeps while the limbs are active, but when one is sleeping, the soul is active and reveals “an award of joy or sorrow drawing near”in dreams.[4]

Erwin Rohde writes that an early pre-Pythagorean belief presented the soul as lifeless when it departed the body, and that it retired into Hades with no hope of returning to a body.[5]

Socrates and Plato[edit]

Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco byRaphael.

Drawing on the words of his teacher Socrates, Plato considered the psyche to be theessence of a person, being that which decides how we behave. He considered this essence to be an incorporeal, eternal occupant of our being. Socrates says that even after death, the soul exists and is able to think. He believed that as bodies die, the soul is continually reborn in subsequent bodies and Plato believed this as well; however, he thought that only one part of the soul was immortal (logos). The Platonic soul consists of three parts:

  1. the logos, or logistikon (mind, nous, or reason)
  2. the thymos, or thumetikon (emotion, spiritedness, or masculine)
  3. the eros, or epithumetikon (appetitive, desire, or feminine)

The parts are located in different regions of the body:

  1. logos is located in the head, is related to reason and regulates the other part.
  2. thymos is located near the chest region and is related to anger.
  3. eros is located in the stomach and is related to one’s desires.

Plato also compares the three parts of the soul or psyche to a societal caste system. According to Plato’s theory, the three-part soul is essentially the same thing as a state’s class system because, to function well, each part must contribute so that the whole functions well. Logos keeps the other functions of the soul regulated.

Aristotle[edit]

Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) defined the soul, or Psūchê (ψυχή), as the “first actuality” of a naturally organized body,[6] and argued against its separate existence from the physical body. In Aristotle’s view, the primary activity, or full actualization, of a living thing constitutes its soul. For example, the full actualization of an eye, as an independent organism, is seeing (its purpose or final cause).[7] Another example is that the full actualization of a human being would be living a fully functional human life in accordance with reason (which he considered to be a faculty unique to humanity).[8] For Aristotle, the soul is the organization of the form and matter of a natural being which allows it to strive for its full actualization. This organization between form and matter is necessary for any activity, or functionality, to be possible in a natural being. Using an artifact (non-natural being) as an example, a house is a building for human habituation, but for a house to be actualized requires the material (wood, nails, bricks, etc.) necessary for its actuality (i.e. being a fully functional house). However, this does not imply that a house has a soul. In regards to artifacts, the source of motion that is required for their full actualization is outside of themselves (for example, a builder builds a house). In natural beings, this source of motion is contained within the being itself.[9] Aristotle elaborates on this point when he addresses the faculties of the soul.

The various faculties of the soul, such as nutrition (also known as vegetative (peculiar to plants)); movement (also known as passionate (peculiar to animals)); reason (peculiar to humans); sensation (special, common, and incidental); and so forth, when exercised, constitute the “second” actuality, or fulfillment, of the capacity to be alive.[citation needed] For example, someone who falls asleep, as opposed to someone who falls dead, can wake up and go about their life, while the latter can no longer do so.

Aristotle identified three hierarchical levels of natural beings: plants, animals, and people. For these groups, he identified three corresponding levels of soul, or biological activity: the nutritive activity of growth, sustenance and reproduction which all life shares; the self-willed motive activity and sensory faculties, which only animals and people have in common; and finally “reason”, of which people alone are capable.

Aristotle’s discussion of the soul is in his work, De Anima (On the Soul). Although mostly seen as opposing Plato in regard to the immortality of the soul, a controversy arose in relation to the fifth chapter of the third book. In this text, both interpretations can be argued for: soul as a whole is mortal, or a part called “active intellect” or “active mind” is immortal and eternal.[10] Commentators exist on both sides of the controversy, but it is understood that there will be permanent disagreement about its final conclusions, as no other Aristotelian text contains this specific point, and this part of De Animais obscure.[11]

Avicenna and Ibn al-Nafis[edit]

Following Aristotle, Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and Ibn al-Nafis, a Persian philosopher, further elaborated upon the Aristotelian understanding of the soul and developed their own theories on the soul. They both made a distinction between the soul and the spirit, and the Avicennian doctrine on the nature of the soul was influential among the Scholastics. Some of Avicenna’s views on the soul include the idea that the immortality of the soul is a consequence of its nature, and not a purpose for it to fulfill. In his theory of “The Ten Intellects”, he viewed the human soul as the tenth and final intellect.

While he was imprisoned, Avicenna wrote his famous “Floating Man” thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantial nature of the soul. He told his readers to imagine themselves suspended in the air, isolated from all sensations, which includes no sensory contact with even their own bodies. He argues that in this scenario one would still have self-consciousness. He thus concludes that the idea of the self is not logically dependent on any physicalthing, and that the soul should not be seen in relative terms, but as a primary given, a substance. This argument was later refined and simplified by René Descartes in epistemic terms, when he stated: “I can abstract from the supposition of all external things, but not from the supposition of my own consciousness.”[12]

Avicenna generally supported Aristotle’s idea of the soul originating from the heart, whereas Ibn al-Nafis rejected this idea and instead argued that the soul “is related to the entirety and not to one or a few organs“. He further criticized Aristotle’s idea whereby every unique soul requires the existence of a unique source, in this case the heart. al-Nafis concluded that “the soul is related primarily neither to the spirit nor to any organ, but rather to the entire matter whose temperament is prepared to receive that soul,” and he defined the soul as nothing other than “what a human indicates by saying “I“.[13]

Thomas Aquinas[edit]

Following Aristotle and Avicenna, Thomas Aquinas (1225–74) understood the soul to be the first actuality of the living body. Consequent to this, he distinguished three orders of life: plants, which feed and grow; animals, which add sensation to the operations of plants; and humans, which add intellect to the operations of animals.[citation needed]

Concerning the human soul, his epistemological theory required that, since the knower becomes what he knows, the soul is definitely not corporeal—if it is corporeal when it knows what some corporeal thing is, that thing would come to be within it.[14] Therefore, the soul has an operation which does not rely on a bodily organ, and therefore the soul could subsist without a body. Furthermore, since the rational soul of human beings is a subsistent form and not something made of matter and form, it cannot be destroyed in any natural process.[15] The full argument for the immortality of the soul and Aquinas’ elaboration of Aristotelian theory is found in Question 75 of the Summa Theologica.

Immanuel Kant[edit]

In his discussions of rational psychology, Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) identified the soul as the “I” in the strictest sense, and that the existence of inner experience can neither be proved nor disproved. “We cannot prove a priori the immateriality of the soul, but rather only so much: that all properties and actions of the soul cannot be cognized from materiality”. It is from the “I”, or soul, that Kant proposes transcendental rationalization, but cautions that such rationalization can only determine the limits of knowledge if it is to remain practical.[16]

Philosophy of mind[edit]

Main article: Philosophy of mind

Gilbert Ryle‘s ghost-in-the-machine argument, which is a rejection of Descartes’ mind-body dualism, can provide a contemporary understanding of the soul/mind, and the problem concerning its connection to the brain/body.[17]

Religious views[edit]

Ancient Near East[edit]

The souls of Pe andNekhen towing the royal bargue on a relief ofRamesses II‘s temple in Abydos.

In the ancient Egyptian religion, an individual was believed to be made up of various elements, some physical and some spiritual.

Similar ideas are found in ancient Assyrian and Babylonian religion. Kuttamuwa, an 8th-century BC royal official from Sam’al, ordered an inscribed stele erected upon his death. The inscription requested that his mourners commemorate his life and his afterlife with feasts “for my soul that is in this stele”. It is one of the earliest references to a soul as a separate entity from the body. The 800-pound (360 kg) basalt stele is 3 ft (0.91 m) tall and 2 ft (0.61 m) wide. It was uncovered in the third season of excavations by the Neubauer Expedition of the Oriental Institute in Chicago, Illinois.[18]

Bahá’í[edit]

The Bahá’í Faith affirms that “the soul is a sign of God, a heavenly gem whose reality the most learned of men hath failed to grasp, and whose mystery no mind, however acute, can ever hope to unravel”.[19] Bahá’u’lláh stated that the soul not only continues to live after the physical death of the human body, but is, in fact, immortal.[20] Heaven can be seen partly as the soul’s state of nearness to God; and hell as a state of remoteness from God. Each state follows as a natural consequence of individual efforts, or the lack thereof, to develop spiritually.[21] Bahá’u’lláh taught that individuals have no existence prior to their life here on earth and the soul’s evolution is always towards God and away from the material world.[21]

Buddhism[edit]

Buddhism teaches that all things are in a constant state of flux: all is changing, and no permanent state exists by itself.[22][23]This applies to human beings as much as to anything else in the cosmos. Thus, a human being has no permanent self.[24][25] According to this doctrine of anatta (Pāli; Sanskrit: anātman) – “no-self” or “no soul” – the words “I” or “me” do not refer to any fixed thing. They are simply convenient terms that allow us to refer to an ever-changing entity.[26]

The anatta doctrine is not a kind of materialism. Buddhism does not deny the existence of “immaterial” entities, and it (at least traditionally) distinguishes bodily states from mental states.[27] Thus, the conventional translation of anatta as “no-soul”[28] can be confusing. If the word “soul” simply refers to an incorporeal component in living things that can continue after death, then Buddhism does not deny the existence of the soul.[29] Instead, Buddhism denies the existence of a permanent entity that remains constant behind the changing corporeal and incorporeal components of a living being. Just as the body changes from moment to moment, so thoughts come and go. And there is no permanent, underlying mind that experiences these thoughts, as in Cartesianism; rather, conscious mental states simply arise and perish with no “thinker” behind them.[30] When the body dies, Buddhists believe the incorporeal mental processes continue and are reborn in a new body.[29] Because the mental processes are constantly changing, the being that is reborn is neither entirely different from, nor exactly the same as, the being that died.[31] However, the new being is continuous with the being that died – in the same way that the “you” of this moment is continuous with the “you” of a moment before, despite the fact that you are constantly changing.[32]

Buddhist teaching holds that a notion of a permanent, abiding self is a delusion that is one of the causes of human conflict on the emotional, social, and political levels.[33][34] They add that an understanding of anatta provides an accurate description of the human condition, and that this understanding allows us to pacify our mundane desires.

Various schools of Buddhism have differing ideas about what continues after death.[35] The Yogacara school in MahayanaBuddhism said there are Store consciousness which continue to exist after death.[36] In some schools, particularly Tibetan Buddhism, the view is that there are three minds: very subtle mind, which does not disintegrate in death; subtle mind, which disintegrates in death and which is “dreaming mind” or “unconscious mind”; and gross mind, which does not exist when one is sleeping. Therefore, gross mind less permanent than subtle mind, which does not exist in death. Very subtle mind, however, does continue, and when it “catches on”, or coincides with phenomena, again, a new subtle mind emerges, with its own personality/assumptions/habits, and that entity experiences karma in the current continuum.

Plants were said to be non-sentient (無情),[37] but Buddhist monks should avoid cutting or burning trees, because some sentient beings rely on them.[38] Some Mahayana monks said non-sentient beings such as plants and stones have buddha-nature.[39][40] Some buddhists said about plants or divisible consciousnesses[clarification needed].[41]

Certain modern Buddhists, particularly in Western countries, reject—or at least take an agnostic stance toward—the concept of rebirth or reincarnation, which they view as incompatible with the concept of anatta. Stephen Batchelordiscusses this issue in his book Buddhism Without Beliefs. Others point to research that has been conducted at theUniversity of Virginia as proof that some people are reborn.[42]

Christianity[edit]

Soul carried to Heaven by William Bouguereau

Most Christians understand the soul as an ontological reality distinct from, yet integrally connected with, the body. Its characteristics are described in moral, spiritual, and philosophical terms. Richard Swinburne, a Christian philosopher of religion at Oxford University, wrote that “it is a frequent criticism of substance dualism that dualists cannot say what souls are…Souls are immaterial subjects of mental properties. They have sensations and thoughts, desires and beliefs, and perform intentional actions. Souls are essential parts of human beings”. According to a common Christian eschatology, when people die, their souls will be judged by God and determined to go to Heaven or to Hell. Though all branches of Christianity – Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox,Evangelical and mainline Protestants – teach that Jesus Christ plays a decisive role in the Christian salvation process, the specifics of that role and the part played by individual persons or ecclesiastical rituals and relationships, is a matter of wide diversity in official church teaching, theological speculation and popular practice. Some Christians believe that if one has not repented of one’s sins and trusted in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, one will go to Hell and suffer eternal damnation or eternal separation from God. Some hold a belief that babies (including the unborn) and those with cognitive or mental impairments who have died will be received into Heaven on the basis of God’s grace through the sacrifice of Jesus.[citation needed]

Other Christians understand the soul as the life, and believe that the dead sleep (Christian conditionalism). This belief is traditionally accompanied by the belief that the unrighteous soul will cease to exist instead of suffering eternally (annihilationism). Believers will inherit eternal life either in Heaven, or in a Kingdom of God on earth, and enjoy eternal fellowship with God.

There are also beliefs in universal salvation.

The Damned Soul. Drawing by Michelangelo Buonarroti c. 1525

Trichotomy of the soul[edit]

Augustine, one of western Christianity’s most influential early Christian thinkers, described the soul as “a special substance, endowed with reason, adapted to rule the body”. Some Christians espouse a trichotomic view of humans, which characterizes humans as consisting of a body (soma), soul (psyche), and spirit (pneuma).[43] However, the majority of modern Bible scholars point out how spirit and soul are used interchangeably in many biblical passages, and so hold to dichotomy: the view that each of us is body and soul. Paul said that the “body wars against” the soul, and that “I buffet my body”, to keep it under control. Trichotomy was changed to dichotomy as tenet of Christian faith at the 8th Ecumenical Council in Constantinople in 869.[44]

Origin of the soul[edit]

The origin of the soul has provided a vexing question in Christianity; the major theories put forward include soul creationism, traducianism and pre-existence. According to creationism, each individual soul is created directly by God, either at the moment of conception or some later time. According to traducianism, the soul comes from the parents by natural generation. According to the preexistence theory, the soul exists before the moment of conception. There have been differing thoughts regarding whether human embryos have souls from conception, or there is a point between conception and birth where the fetus acquires a soul, consciousness, and/orpersonhood. Stances in this question might more or less influence judgements on the immorality of abortion.[45][46][47]

Various denominations[edit]

The present Catechism of the Catholic Church defines the soul as “the innermost aspect of humans, that which is of greatest value in them, that by which they are most especially in God’s image: ‘soul’ signifies the spiritual principle in man”.[48] All souls living and dead will be judged by Jesus Christ when he comes back to earth. The Catholic Church teaches that the existence of each individual soul is dependent wholly upon God: “The doctrine of the faith affirms that the spiritual and immortal soul is created immediately by God.”[49]

Depiction of the soul on a 17th-century tombstone at the cemetery of the Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow

Protestants generally believe in the soul’s existence, but fall into two major camps about what this means in terms of an afterlife. Some, following Calvin,[50] believe in the immortality of the soul and conscious existence after death, while others, following Luther,[51] believe in the mortality of the soul and unconscious “sleep” until the resurrection of the dead.[52]

Christadelphians believe that we are all created out of the dust of the earth and became living souls once we received the breath of life based on the Genesis 2 account of humanity’s creation. Adam was said to have become a living soul. His body did not contain a soul, rather his body (made from dust) plus the breath of life together were called a soul, in other words a living being. They believe that we are mortal and when we die our breath leaves our body, and our bodies return to the soil. They believe that we are mortal until the resurrection from the dead when Christ returns to this earth and grants immortality to the faithful. In the meantime, the dead lie in the earth in the sleep of death until Jesus comes.[53]

Seventh-day Adventists believe that the main definition of the term “Soul” is a combination of spirit (breath of life) and body, disagreeing with the view that the soul has a consciousness or sentient existence of its own.[citation needed] They affirm this through Genesis 2:7 “And (God) breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.”[54] When God united His breath, or spirit, with man, man became a living soul. A living soul is composed of body and spirit.[55] Adventists believe at death the body returns to dust and life returns to the God who bestowed it. This belief is expressed in the following quotation from their fundamental beliefs,

“The wages of sin is death. But God, who alone is immortal, will grant eternal life to His redeemed. Until that day death is an unconscious state for all people…” (Rom. 6:23; 1 Tim. 6:15, 16; Eccl. 9:5, 6; Ps. 146:3, 4; John 11:11–14; Col. 3:4; 1 Cor. 15:51–54; 1 Thess. 4:13–17; John 5:28, 29; Rev. 20:1–10).

Jehovah’s Witnesses take the Hebrew word nephesh, which is commonly translated as “soul”, to be a person, an animal, or the life that a person or an animal enjoys. They believe that the Hebrew word ruach (Greek pneuma), which is commonly translated as “spirit” but literally means “wind”, refers to the life force or the power that animates living things. A person is a breathing creature, a body animated by the “spirit of God”, not an invisible being contained in a body and able to survive apart from that body after death. Jesus spoke of himself, having life, as having a soul. When he surrendered his life, he surrendered his soul. John 10:15 reads “just as the Father knows me and I know the father, and I surrender my soul in behalf of the sheep”. This belief that man is a soul, rather than having a soul, is also in line with the knowledge that Hell (Sheol in Hebrew and Hades in Greek) represents the common grave with the hope of resurrection rather than eternal torment in hellfire.[56][57]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that the spirit and body together constitute the Soul of Man (Mankind). “The spirit and the body are the soul of man.”[58] Latter-Day Saints believe that the soul is the union of a pre-existing, God-made spirit[59][60][61] and a temporal body, which is formed by physical conception on earth. After death, the spirit continues to live and progress in the Spirit world until the resurrection, when it is reunited with the body that once housed it. This reuniting of body and spirit results in a perfect soul that is immortal and eternally young and healthy and capable of receiving a fulness of joy.[62][63] Latter-Day Saint cosmology also describes “intelligences” as the essence of consciousness or agency. These are co-eternal with God, and animate the spirits.[64] The union of a newly created spirit body with an eternally-existing intelligence constitutes a “spirit birth”[citation needed] and justifies God’s title “Father of our spirits”.[65][66][67]

Hinduism[edit]

Main articles: Ātman (Hinduism) and Jiva

Hindu last rites for departed souls

In Hinduism, the Sanskrit words most closely corresponding to soul are jiva, Ātmanand “purusha“, meaning the individual self. The term “soul” is misleading as it implies an object possessed, whereas self signifies the subject which perceives all objects. This self is held to be distinct from the various mental faculties such as desires, thinking, understanding, reasoning and self-image (ego), all of which are considered to be part of prakriti (nature).

The three major schools of Hindu philosophy agree that the atman (individual self) is related to Brahman or the Paramatman, the Absolute Atman or Supreme Self, but they differ in the nature of this relationship. In Advaita Vedanta the individual self and the Supreme Self are one and the same. Dvaita rejects this concept of identity, instead identifying the self as a separate but similar part of Supreme Self (God), that never loses its individual identity. Visishtadvaita takes a middle path and accepts theatman as a “mode” (prakara) or attribute of the Brahman. For an alternative atheistic and dualistic view of the atman in ancient Hindu philosophy, see Samkhya.

The atman becomes involved in the process of becoming and transmigrating through cycles of birth and death because of ignorance of its own true nature. The spiritual path consists of self-realization – a process in which one acquires the knowledge of the self (brahma-jñanam) and through this knowledge applied through meditation and realization one then returns to the Source which is Brahman.

The qualities which are common to both Brahman and atmam are being (sat), consciousness (chit), and bliss/love (ananda). Liberation or moksha is liberation from all limiting adjuncts (upadhis) and the unification with Brahman.

The Mandukya Upanishad verse 7 describes the atman in the following way:

“Not inwardly cognitive, not outwardly cognitive, not both-wise cognitive, not a cognition-mass, not cognitive, not non-cognitive, unseen, with which there can be no dealing, ungraspable, having no distinctive mark, non-thinkable, that cannot be designated, the essence of the assurance of which is the state of being one with the Self, the cessation of development, tranquil, benign, without a second (a-dvaita)—[such] they think is the fourth. That is the Self. That should be discerned.”

In Bhagavad Gita 2.20 Lord Krishna describes the atman in the following way:[68]

na jayate mriyate va kadacin ‘nayam bhutva bhavita va na bhuyah ‘ajo nityah sasvato yam purano ‘na hanyate hanyamane sarire

“For the atman there is neither birth nor death at any time. He has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. He is unborn, eternal, ever – existing and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain”. [Translation by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Srila Prabhupada)][69]

Srila Prabhupada, a great Vaishnava saint of the modern time further explains: “The atman does not take birth there, and the atman does not die… And because the atman has no birth, he therefore has no past, present or future. He is eternal, ever-existing and primeval – that is, there is no trace in history of his coming into being.”[70]

Since the quality of Atma is primarily consciousness, all sentient and insentient beings are pervaded by Atma, including plants, animals, humans and gods. The difference between them is the contracted or expanded state of that consciousness. For example, animals and humans share in common the desire to live, fear of death, desire to procreate and to protect their families and territory and the need for sleep, but animals’ consciousness is more contracted and has less possibility to expand than does human consciousness.

When the Atma becomes embodied it is called birth, when the Aatma leaves a body it is called death. The Aatma transmigrates from one body to another body based on karmic [performed deeds] reactions.

In Hinduism, the Sanskrit word most closely corresponding to soul is Atma, which can mean soul or even God. It is seen as the portion of Brahman within us. Hinduism contains many variant beliefs on the origin, purpose, and fate of the atma. For example, advaita or non-dualistic conception of the aatma accords it union with Brahman, the absolute uncreated (roughly, the Godhead), in eventuality or in pre-existing fact. Dvaita or dualistic concepts reject this, instead identifying the atma as a different and incompatible substance.

There are 25 coverings wrapped on our Atma (Reference Taken from Vaikunta Varnane written by Sanyasi Vadiraja Swami) 1. Iccha avarka, 2. Linga deha, 3. Avyakta Sharira, 4. Avidya Avarna, 5. Karma avarna, 6. Kama avarna, 7. Jeevacchadaka, 8. Paramacchadaka, 9. Narayana rupa avarna, 10. Vasudeva rupa Avarna, 11. Sankarshana rupa avarna, 12. Pradhyumna Avarka, 13. Anniruddha avarka, 14. Anniruddha Sharira, 15. Vasudeva Kavaca, 16. Narayana Kavaca, 17. Anandamaya kosha, 18. Vignanamaya kosha, 19. Manomaya kosha, 20. Vangmaya kosha, 21. Shrotrumaya kosha, 22. Chakshurmaya kosha, 23. Pranamaya kosha, 24. Annamaya kosha, 25. Gross Body.

Islam[edit]

Further information: Nafs

Islam teaches that the soul is immortal and eternal, and that what a person does is recorded and will be judged at the final court of God. They will either go to heaven or hell, depending on whether or not they did well in the test that was given to them by Allah.

The Qur’an mentions the soul:

And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul (Rûh). Say, “The soul (Rûh) is of the affair of my Lord. And mankind have not been given of knowledge except a little.” – Qur’an 17:85
It is Allah that takes the souls at death: and those that die not (He takes their souls) during their sleep: then those on whom He has passed the Decree of death He keeps back (their souls from returning to their bodies); but the rest He sends (their souls back to their bodies) for a term appointed. Verily in this are Signs for those who contemplate. – Qur’an 39:42

Jainism[edit]

Main articles: Atman (Jainism) and Jiva

In Jainism every living being, from a plant or a bacterium to human, has a soul and the concept forms the very basis of Jainism. The soul (Atman (Jainism)) is basically categorized in two based on its liberation state.

  1. Liberated Souls– These are souls which have attained (Moksha) and never become part of the life cycle again.
  2. Non-Liberated Souls – The Souls of any living being which are stuck in the life cycle of 4 forms Manushya Gati (Human Being), Tiryanch Gati (Any other living being), Dev Gati (Heaven) and Narak Gati (Hell). Till the time the soul is not liberated from the innumerable birth and death cycle, it gets attached to different types of above bodies based on the karma of individual soul. According to Jainism, there is no beginning and end to the existence of soul. It is eternal in nature and changes its form till it attains (Moksha)

Irrespective of which state the soul is in, it has got the same attributes and qualities. The difference between the liberated and non-liberated souls is that the qualities and attributes are exhibited completely in case of Siddhas (Siddha) as they have overcome all the karmic bondages whereas in case of non-liberated souls they are partially exhibited.

Concerning the Jain view of the soul, Virchand Gandhi quoted “the soul lives its own life, not for the purpose of the body, but the body lives for the purpose of the soul. If we believe that the soul is to be controlled by the body then soul misses its power”.[71]

Judaism[edit]

The fruit of a righteous man is the tree of life, and the wise man acquires נְפָשׁוֹת souls.

The Hebrew terms נפש nephesh (literally “living being”), רוח ruach (literally “wind”), נשמה neshama (literally “breath”), חיה chaya(literally “life”) and יחידה yechidah (literally “singularity”) are used to describe the soul or spirit. In modern Judaism the soul is believed to be given by God to a person by his/her first breath, as mentioned in Genesis, “And the LORD God formed man [of] the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.” Genesis 2:7. Judaism relates the quality of one’s soul to one’s performance of the commandments, mitzvot, and reaching higher levels of understanding, and thus closeness to God. A person with such closeness is called a tzadik. Therefore, Judaism embraces the commemoration of the day of one’s death, nahala/Yahrtzeit and not the birthday[72] as a festive of remembrance, for only toward the end of life’s struggles, tests and challenges human souls could be judged and credited – b’ezrat hashem (“with God’s help”) – for righteousness and holiness.[73][74] Judaism places great importance on the study of the souls, which is expected to make a practical difference in the world.[75]

For I [Hashem] will not contend forever, neither will I be wroth to eternity, when a spirit from before Me humbles itself, and רוּחַ souls [which] I have made.

Kabbalah and other mystic traditions go into greater detail into the nature of the soul. Kabbalah separates the soul into five elements, corresponding to the five worlds:

  1. Nephesh, related to natural instinct.
  2. Ruach, related to emotion and morality.
  3. Neshamah, related to intellect and the awareness of God.
  4. Chayah, considered a part of God, as it were.
  5. Yechidah, also termed the pintele Yid (the “essential [inner] Jew”). This aspect is essentially one with God.

Kabbalah also proposed a concept of reincarnation, the gilgul. (See also nefesh habehamit the “animal soul”.)

Shamanism[edit]

According to Nadya Yuguseva, a shaman from the Altai, “‘A woman has 40 souls; men have just one[.]'”[76]

Sikhism[edit]

Sikhism considers Soul (atma) to be part of God (Waheguru). Various hymns are cited from the holy book “Sri Guru Granth Sahib” (SGGS) that suggests this belief. “God is in the Soul and the Soul is in the God.”[77] The same concept is repeated at various pages of the SGGS. For example: “The soul is divine; divine is the soul. Worship Him with love.”[78] and “The soul is the Lord, and the Lord is the soul; contemplating the Shabad, the Lord is found.”[79] The “Atma” or “Soul” according to Sikhism is an entity or “spiritual spark” or “light” in our body because of which the body can sustain life. On the departure of this entity from the body, the body becomes lifeless – No amount of manipulations to the body can make the person make any physical actions. The soul is the ‘driver’ in the body. It is the ‘roohu’ or spirit or atma, the presence of which makes the physical body alive. Many religious and philosophical traditions, support the view that the soul is the ethereal substance – a spirit; a non material spark – particular to a unique living being. Such traditions often consider the soul both immortal and innately aware of its immortal nature, as well as the true basis for sentience in each living being. The concept of the soul has strong links with notions of an afterlife, but opinions may vary wildly even within a given religion as to what happens to the soul after death. Many within these religions and philosophies see the soul as immaterial, while others consider it possibly material.

Taoism[edit]

According to Chinese traditions, every person has two types of soul called hun and po (魂 and 魄), which are respectivelyyang and yin. Taoism believes in ten souls, sanhunqipo (三魂七魄) “three hun and seven po“.[80] The pò is linked to the dead body and the grave, whereas the hún is linked to the ancestral tablet. A living being that loses any of them is said to have mental illness or unconsciousness, while a dead soul may reincarnate to a disability, lower desire realms or may even be unable to reincarnate.

Zoroastrianism[edit]

Main article: Zoroastrianism

Other religious beliefs and views[edit]

Charon (Greek) who guides dead souls to the Underworld. 4th century BC.

In theological reference to the soul, the terms “life” and “death” are viewed as emphatically more definitive than the common concepts of “biological life” and “biological death”. Because the soul is said to be transcendent of the material existence, and is said to have (potentially) eternal life, the death of the soul is likewise said to be an eternal death. Thus, in the concept of divine judgment, God is commonly said to have options with regard to the dispensation of souls, ranging from Heaven (i.e., angels) to hell (i.e., demons), with various concepts in between. Typically both Heaven and hell are said to be eternal, or at least far beyond a typical human concept of lifespan and time.

Spirituality, New Age and new religions[edit]

Brahma Kumaris[edit]

In Brahma Kumaris, human souls are believed to be incorporeal and eternal. God is considered to be the Supreme Soul, with maximum degrees of spiritual qualities, such as peace, love and purity.[81]

Theosophy[edit]

In Helena Blavatsky‘s Theosophy, the soul is the field of our psychological activity (thinking, emotions, memory, desires, will, and so on) as well as of the so-called paranormal or psychic phenomena (extrasensory perception, out-of-body experiences, etc.). However, the soul is not the highest, but a middle dimension of human beings. Higher than the soul is the spirit, which is considered to be the real self; the source of everything we call “good”—happiness, wisdom, love, compassion, harmony, peace, etc. While the spirit is eternal and incorruptible, the soul is not. The soul acts as a link between the material body and the spiritual self, and therefore shares some characteristics of both. The soul can be attracted either towards the spiritual or towards the material realm, being thus the “battlefield” of good and evil. It is only when the soul is attracted towards the spiritual and merges with the Self that it becomes eternal and divine.

Anthroposophy[edit]

Rudolf Steiner differentiated three stages of soul development, which interpenetrate one another in consciousness:[82]

  • The “sentient soul”, centering on sensations, drives, and passions, with strong conative (will) and emotional components;
  • The “intellectual” or “mind soul”, internalizing and reflecting on outer experience, with strong affective (feeling) and cognitive (thinking) components; and
  • The “consciousness soul”, in search of universal, objective truths.

Miscellaneous[edit]

In Surat Shabda Yoga, the soul is considered to be an exact replica and spark of the Divine. The purpose of Surat Shabd Yoga is to realize one’s True Self as soul (Self-Realisation), True Essence (Spirit-Realisation) and True Divinity (God-Realisation) while living in the physical body.

Similarly, the spiritual teacher Meher Baba held that “Atma, or the soul, is in reality identical with Paramatma the Oversoul — which is one, infinite, and eternal…[and] [t]he sole purpose of creation is for the soul to enjoy the infinite state of the Oversoul consciously.”[83]

Eckankar, founded by Paul Twitchell in 1965, defines Soul as the true self; the inner, most sacred part of each person.[84]

Science[edit]

The findings of science may be relevant to one’s understanding of the soul depending on one’s belief regarding the relationship between the soul and the mind. One problem with seeking scientific evidence for the soul is that there is no clear or unique definition of what the soul is.

Neuroscience and the soul[edit]

Neuroscience as an interdisciplinary field, and its branch of cognitive neuroscience particularly, operates under theontological assumption of physicalism, according to which only the fundamental phenomena studied by physics exist. Thus, neuroscience seeks to understand mental phenomena within the framework according to which human thought andbehavior are caused solely by physical processes taking place inside the brain, and it operates by the way of reduction by seeking an explanation for the mind in terms of brain activity.[85][86]

To study the mind in terms of the brain several methods of functional neuroimaging are used to study the neuroanatomical correlates of various cognitive processes that constitute the mind. The evidence from brain imaging indicates that all processes of the mind have physical correlates in brain function.[87] However, such correlational studies cannot determine whether neural activity plays a causal role in the occurrence of these cognitive processes (correlation does not imply causation) and they cannot determine if the neural activity is either necessary and sufficient for such processes to occur. Identification of causation and necessary and sufficient conditions requires explicit experimental manipulation of that activity. If manipulation of brain activity changes consciousness, then a causal role for that brain activity can be inferred.[88][89] Two of the most common types of manipulation experiments are loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments. In a loss-of-function (also called “necessity”) experiment, a part of the nervous system is diminished or removed in an attempt to determine if it is necessary for a certain process to occur, and in a gain-of-function (also called “sufficiency”) experiment, an aspect of the nervous system is increased relative to normal.[90] Manipulations of brain activity can be performed with direct electrical brain stimulation, magnetic brain stimulation using transcranial magnetic stimulation,psychopharmacological manipulation, optogenetic manipulation and by studying the symptoms of brain damage (case studies) and lesions. In addition, neuroscientists are also investigating how the mind develops with the development of the brain.[91]

Physics and the soul[edit]

Physicist Sean M. Carroll has written that the idea of a soul is in opposition to quantum field theory (QFT). He writes that for a soul to exist “Not only is new physics required, but dramatically new physics. Within QFT, there can’t be a new collection of “spirit particles” and “spirit forces” that interact with our regular atoms, because we would have detected them in existing experiments.”[92]

Parapsychology[edit]

Some parapsychologists have attempted to establish by scientific experiment whether a soul separate from the brain, as more commonly defined in religion rather than as a synonym of psyche or mind, exists. Milbourne Christopher (1979) andMary Roach (2010) have argued that none of the attempts by parapsychologists have yet succeeded.[93][94]

Weight of the soul[edit]

In 1901 Duncan MacDougall made weight measurements of patients as they died. He claimed that there was weight loss of varying amounts at the time of death.[95] The physicist Robert L. Park has written MacDougall’s experiments “are not regarded today as having any scientific merit” and the psychologist Bruce Hood wrote that “because the weight loss was not reliable or replicable, his findings were unscientific.”[96][97]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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    1) breath, spirit
    1a) breath (of God)
    1b) breath (of man)
    1c) every breathing thing
    1d) spirit (of man)
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