Alam Semesta Tiruan.

Pertanyaan: Apa itu CERN dan LHC ?  Mengapa disebut sebagai Alam Semesta tiruan?
Jawaban: Ini eyang kutipkan tulisan yang berhubungan dengan CERN dan LHC yang eyang ketemukan dengan menggunakan mesin pencari google.

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Simulation of a Higgs event  in a proton–proton collision

Why the LHC

A few unanswered questions…

The LHC was built to help scientists to answer key unresolved questions in particle physics. The unprecedented energy it achieves may even reveal some unexpected results that no one has ever thought of!

For the past few decades, physicists have been able to describe with increasing detail the fundamental particles that make up the Universe and the interactions between them. This understanding is encapsulated in the Standard Model of particle physics, but it contains gaps and cannot tell us the whole story. To fill in the missing knowledge requires experimental data, and the next big step to achieving this is with LHC.

Newton’s unfinished business…

What is mass?

What is the origin of mass? Why do tiny particles weigh the amount they do? Why do some particles have no mass at all? At present, there are no established answers to these questions. The most likely explanation may be found in the Higgs boson, a key undiscovered particle that is essential for the Standard Model to work. First hypothesised in 1964, it has yet to be observed.

The ATLAS and CMS experiments will be actively searching for signs of this elusive particle.

An invisible problem…

What is 96% of the universe made of?

Everything we see in the Universe, from an ant to a galaxy, is made up of ordinary particles. These are collectively referred to as matter, forming 4% of the Universe. Dark matter and dark energy are believed to make up the remaining proportion, but they are incredibly difficult to detect and study, other than through the gravitational forces they exert. Investigating the nature of dark matter and dark energy is one of the biggest challenges today in the fields of particle physics and cosmology.

The ATLAS and CMS experiments will look for supersymmetric particles to test a likely hypothesis for the make-up of dark matter.

Nature’s favouritism…

Why is there no more antimatter?

We live in a world of matter – everything in the Universe, including ourselves, is made of matter. Antimatter is like a twin version of matter, but with opposite electric charge. At the birth of the Universe, equal amounts of matter and antimatter should have been produced in the Big Bang. But when matter and antimatter particles meet, they annihilate each other, transforming into energy. Somehow, a tiny fraction of matter must have survived to form the Universe we live in today, with hardly any antimatter left. Why does Nature appear to have this bias for matter over antimatter?

The LHCb experiment will be looking for differences between matter and antimatter to help answer this question. Previous experiments have already observed a tiny behavioural difference, but what has been seen so far is not nearly enough to account for the apparent matter–antimatter imbalance in the Universe.

Secrets of the Big Bang

What was matter like within the first second of the Universe’s life?

Matter, from which everything in the Universe is made, is believed to have originated from a dense and hot cocktail of fundamental particles. Today, the ordinary matter of the Universe is made of atoms, which contain a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons, which in turn are made of quarks bound together by other particles called gluons. The bond is very strong, but in the very early Universe conditions would have been too hot and energetic for the gluons to hold the quarks together. Instead, it seems likely that during the first microseconds after the Big Bang the Universe would have contained a very hot and dense mixture of quarks and gluons called quark–gluon plasma.

The ALICE experiment will use the LHC to recreate conditions similar to those just after the Big Bang, in particular to analyse the properties of the quark-gluon plasma.

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Model of a superconducting dipole magnet for the LHC project

How the LHC works

The LHC, the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator, is the latest addition to CERN’s accelerator complex. It mainly consists of a 27 km ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way.

Inside the accelerator, two beams of particles travel at close to the speed of light with very high energies before colliding with one another. The beams travel in opposite directions in separate beam pipes – two tubes kept at ultrahigh vacuum. They are guided around the accelerator ring by a strong magnetic field, achieved using superconducting electromagnets. These are built from coils of special electric cable that operates in a superconducting state, efficiently conducting electricity without resistance or loss of energy. This requires chilling the magnets to about ‑271°C – a temperature colder than outer space! For this reason, much of the accelerator is connected to a distribution system of liquid helium, which cools the magnets, as well as to other supply services.

Thousands of magnets of different varieties and sizes are used to direct the beams around the accelerator. These include 1232 dipole magnets of 15 m length which are used to bend the beams, and 392 quadrupole magnets, each 5–7 m long, to focus the beams. Just prior to collision, another type of magnet is used to ‘squeeze’ the particles closer together to increase the chances of collisions. The particles are so tiny that the task of making them collide is akin to firing needles from two positions 10 km apart with such precision that they meet halfway!

The CERN Control CentreAll the controls for the accelerator, its services and technical infrastructure are housed under one roof at the CERN Control Centre. From here, the beams inside the LHC will be made to collide at four locations around the accelerator ring, corresponding to the positions of the particle detectors.

 

 

ibnusomowiyono
ibnusomowiyono wrote on Jun 7, ’11
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Model of a superconducting dipole magnet for the LHC project
Why the LHC
How the LHC works
Heavy-ion physics
The LHC experiments

ALICE
ATLAS
CMS
LHCb
TOTEM
LHCf

Computing
The safety of the LHC
Facts and figures
LHC Milestones
Heavy-ion physics at the LHC

In the LHC heavy-ion programme, beams of heavy nuclei (“ions”) will collide at energies up to 30 times higher than in previous laboratory experiments. In these heavy-ion collisions, matter is heated to more than 100,000 times the temperature at the centre of the Sun, reaching conditions that existed in the first microseconds after the Big Bang. The aim of the heavy-ion programme at the LHC is to produce this matter at the highest temperatures and densities ever studied in the laboratory, and to investigate its properties in detail. This is expected to lead to basic new insights into the nature of the strong interaction between fundamental particles.

The strong interaction is the fundamental force that binds Nature’s elementary particles, called quarks, into bigger objects such as protons and neutrons, which are themselves the building blocks of the atomic elements. Much is known today about the mechanism with which the elementary force-carriers of the strong interaction, the gluons, bind quarks together into protons and neutrons. However, two aspects of the strong interaction remain particularly intriguing.

First, no quark has ever been observed in isolation: quarks and gluons seem to be confined permanently inside composite particles, such as protons and neutrons. Second, protons and neutrons contain three quarks, but the mass of these three quarks accounts for only one percent of the total mass of a proton or neutron. So while the Higgs mechanism could give rise to the masses of the individual quarks, it cannot account for most of the mass of ordinary matter.

The current theory of strong interactions, called quantum chromodynamics, predicts that at very high temperatures, quarks and gluons are deconfined and can exist freely in a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. Theory also predicts that at the same temperature, the mechanism that is responsible for giving composite particles most of their mass ceases to act.

In the LHC heavy-ion programme, three experiments – ALICE, ATLAS and CMS – aim to produce and study this extreme, high-temperature phase of matter and provide novel access to the question of how most of the mass of visible matter in the Universe was generated in the first microseconds after the Big Bang.

Copyright CERN 2008 – Web Communications, DSU-CO

ibnusomowiyono
ibnusomowiyono wrote on Jun 7, ’11
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View of the LHC tunnel with worker
Why the LHC
How the LHC works
Heavy-ion physics
The LHC experiments

ALICE
ATLAS
CMS
LHCb
TOTEM
LHCf

Computing
The safety of the LHC
Facts and figures
LHC Milestones
The LHC experiments

The six experiments at the LHC are all run by international collaborations, bringing together scientists from institutes all over the world. Each experiment is distinct, characterised by its unique particle detector.

The two large experiments, ATLAS and CMS, are based on general-purpose detectors to analyse the myriad of particles produced by the collisions in the accelerator. They are designed to investigate the largest range of physics possible. Having two independently designed detectors is vital for cross-confirmation of any new discoveries made.

Two medium-size experiments, ALICE and LHCb, have specialised detectors for analysing the LHC collisions in relation to specific phenomena.

Two experiments, TOTEM and LHCf, are much smaller in size. They are designed to focus on ‘forward particles’ (protons or heavy ions). These are particles that just brush past each other as the beams collide, rather than meeting head-on

The ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb detectors are installed in four huge underground caverns located around the ring of the LHC. The detectors used by the TOTEM experiment are positioned near the CMS detector, whereas those used by LHCf are near the ATLAS detector.

Copyright CERN 2008 – Web Communications, DSU-CO

ibnusomowiyono
ibnusomowiyono wrote on Jun 7, ’11
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this site all CERN
CERN logo
listitem About us listitem Science listitem Research listitem The LHC listitem People
Model of a superconducting dipole magnet for the LHC project
Why the LHC
How the LHC works
Heavy-ion physics
The LHC experiments

ALICE
ATLAS
CMS
LHCb
TOTEM
LHCf

Computing
The safety of the LHC
Facts and figures
LHC Milestones
How the LHC works

The LHC, the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator, is the latest addition to CERN’s accelerator complex. It mainly consists of a 27 km ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way.

Inside the accelerator, two beams of particles travel at close to the speed of light with very high energies before colliding with one another. The beams travel in opposite directions in separate beam pipes – two tubes kept at ultrahigh vacuum. They are guided around the accelerator ring by a strong magnetic field, achieved using superconducting electromagnets. These are built from coils of special electric cable that operates in a superconducting state, efficiently conducting electricity without resistance or loss of energy. This requires chilling the magnets to about ‑271°C – a temperature colder than outer space! For this reason, much of the accelerator is connected to a distribution system of liquid helium, which cools the magnets, as well as to other supply services.

Thousands of magnets of different varieties and sizes are used to direct the beams around the accelerator. These include 1232 dipole magnets of 15 m length which are used to bend the beams, and 392 quadrupole magnets, each 5–7 m long, to focus the beams. Just prior to collision, another type of magnet is used to ‘squeeze’ the particles closer together to increase the chances of collisions. The particles are so tiny that the task of making them collide is akin to firing needles from two positions 10 km apart with such precision that they meet halfway!

The CERN Control CentreAll the controls for the accelerator, its services and technical infrastructure are housed under one roof at the CERN Control Centre. From here, the beams inside the LHC will be made to collide at four locations around the accelerator ring, corresponding to the positions of the particle detectors.

Copyright CERN 2008 – Web Communications, DSU-CO

ibnusomowiyono
ibnusomowiyono wrote on Jun 7, ’11, edited on Jun 8, ’11
Projek raksaksa ini dimaksud untuk mengungkapkan rahasia Alam Semesta yang belum dapat dijelaskan oleh teori yang telah ada. Bigbang saat ini dianggap sebagai fenomena “nongolnya” alam semesta yang berasal dari titik singular tanpa dijelaskan dari mana dan siapa yang “menciptakan”.
Teori Minimalis menginformasikan bahwa Bigbang merupakan Kelahiran Sub Alam Fisika oleh “induknya” yang dinamakan Alam Semesta versi Minimalis yang terdiri dari : Super natural (Sub Alam Gaib dan Sub Alam Metafisika), Pra natural ( Sub Alam Transien dan pra natural) dan Natural ( Sub Alam Fisika dan Sub Alam Biologi) yang terjadi paska Big bang.
Setelah Bigbang Alam Semesta terdiri dari: Sub Alam Gaib, Sub Alam Metafisika, Sub Alam Transien dan pra natural, Sub Alam Fisika dan Sub Alam Biologi.
Jadi tak mengherankan jika yang dapat terakses oleh pancaindra dan alat bantu Fisika hanyalah Sub Alam Fisika dan Sub Alam Biologi, bagian yang lain hanya terakses oleh bathin/keyakinan, akal/fikiran, dan kemampuan para logika.

Projek Alam Semesta tiruan itu dapat dijelaskan dengan:
1.Fisika: memanfaatkan:
a. ruang hampa materi/ mendekati vacum , sehingga tak menghalangi gerakan partikel yang diberi percepatan oleh medan magnet.
b. medan magnet yang dibangkitkan oleh magnet tetap dan elektro magnet untuk memberikan percepatan pada partikel bermuatan listrik (ion).
c. proton (paket quantum bermuatan listrik statis) yang akan mendapatkan percepatan jika memotong medan magnet.

2. Menurut Teori Minimalis : Sub Alam Fisika Tiruan itu diinformasikan oleh Teori Minimalis dengan mengasumsikan:
a. ruang semu yang didalamnya terdapat eteric yang merupakan dipole magnet yang dua kutubnya tak sama (belum mengalami keseimbangan prima) hingga tak menjadikan ruang semu menjadi ruang nyata, namun dapat dipengaruhi (diinduksi) oleh medan magnet atom sesuai dengan model atom minimalis. Menurut Model Atom Minimalis atom tersusun oleh quantum eteric (bukan hanya tersusun dari quantum saja)
b. kabut eteric yang tak menyebabkan ruang semu menjadi ruang nyata sangat mudah diatur/diarahkan oleh pancaran medan magnet atom minimalis (baca model atom minimalis yang tersusun dari quantum eteric.)
c. magnet permanen maupun elektro magnet yang merupakan dipole yang telah mengalami keseimbangan prima (quantum) yang menyasatu dengan eteric membentuk quantum eteric yang menyebabkan elektron dapat mengelingi inti atom dan menyebabkan medan magnet atom. Medan magnet elektro magnetik dibangkitan oleh elektron yang bergerak pada lilitan konduktor sempurna (tak memiliki tahanan listrik.) Fungsi medan magnet akibat putaran electron mengelilingi proton dan dinamakan medan magnit atom adalah untuk mengarahkan eteric agar dapat membentuk medan magnet.

ibnusomowiyono
ibnusomowiyono wrote on Jun 8, ’11, edited on Jun 8, ’11
Para ilmuwan sangat penasaran, mengapa hanya dapat “melihat/ mengamati” hanya sebagian kecil ( sekitar 4 %) dari isi alam semesta, sedangkan yang lainnya masih merupakan misteri yang akan diungkapkan.
Mereka beranggapan alam semesta hanya terisi oleh partikel (yang membutuhkan ruang nyata) , lainnya dianggap kosong (vacum) atau dapat dikosongkan. Kenyataannya terdapat medan magnet, medan listrik dan cahaya yang tak menjadikan ruang kosong menjadi tak kosong. Mereka tak mengakui adanya eteric yang mengisi seluruh alam semesta baik yang berisi materi maupun yang selama ini dianggap kosong . Cahaya dianggap bersifat dualistik hingga menggunakan cosmos rays maupun cahaya dapat bertabrakan seperti proton atau ion yang jelas berupa partikel.
Teori Minimalis menginformasikan bahwa photon terjadi akibat sifat STW yang berupa gelombang elektro magnet yang mengalami fasa E=0 dalam sesaat kemudian dalam ruang semu (tak terisi partikel) akan lenyap lagi, sangat berbeda dengan proton yang digunakan dalam alam semesta tiruan itu. Dipandingkan proton massa photon teramat kecil (malah dianggap massanya 0) hingga hanya menimbulkan energi sangat kecil jika membentur partikel lain. Energi yang terjadi akibat tabrakan photon dengan partikel atau matter jauh lebih kecil dibanding tabrakan sepasang proton yang bergerak mendekati kecepatan cahaya, energi itu diantaranya berubah menjadi energi panas yang dengan cepat terdistribusi disekitarnya. (Karena disekitarnya terdapat partikel lainnya.)
Alam Semesta tiruan menggunakan proton berkecatan sangat tinggi yang dibenturkan dengan proton, jadi walau kecepatannya tak setinggi cahaya benturan ini dapat menimbulkan energi sangat besar sesuai dengan formula E=m^c2. Energi besar yang terjadi secara mendadak dapat menimbulkan suhu sangat tinggi dan jika tak terdistribusi kesekelilingnya dapat menyebabkan ledakkan atau melelehnya tabung pipa aselerator jika sistim pendinginnya tak sanggup mengatasinya.
Tetapi pastilah semua telah diperhitungkan sehingga percobaan itu aman, yang saya kurang sependapat adalah membandingkan fenomena cahaya (apalagi cosmos ray) yang merupakan fenomena alam semesta dengan gerakan proton dalam alam semesta tiruan. Semoga Tuhan YME mengizinkan uapaya mengungkap rahasia alam semesta dan semoga menjadikan manusia menjadi sadar akan keterbatasannya, sehingga tak menjadi takabur.Home | Sitemap | Contact us

Ini saya kutipkan argumentasi mengapa projek alam semesta tiruan ini aman.

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Visitors during Open Day 2008
Why the LHC
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Computing
The safety of the LHC
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The safety of the LHC

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can achieve an energy that no other particle accelerators have reached before, but Nature routinely produces higher energies in cosmic-ray collisions. Concerns about the safety of whatever may be created in such high-energy particle collisions have been addressed for many years. In the light of new experimental data and theoretical understanding, the LHC Safety Assessment Group (LSAG) has updated a review of the analysis made in 2003 by the LHC Safety Study Group, a group of independent scientists.

LSAG reaffirms and extends the conclusions of the 2003 report that LHC collisions present no danger and that there are no reasons for concern. Whatever the LHC will do, Nature has already done many times over during the lifetime of the Earth and other astronomical bodies. The LSAG report has been reviewed and endorsed by CERN’s Scientific Policy Committee, a group of external scientists that advises CERN’s governing body, its Council.

The following summarizes the main arguments given in the LSAG report. Anyone interested in more details is encouraged to consult it directly, and the technical scientific papers to which it refers.
Cosmic rays

The LHC, like other particle accelerators, recreates the natural phenomena of cosmic rays under controlled laboratory conditions, enabling them to be studied in more detail. Cosmic rays are particles produced in outer space, some of which are accelerated to energies far exceeding those of the LHC. The energy and the rate at which they reach the Earth’s atmosphere have been measured in experiments for some 70 years. Over the past billions of years, Nature has already generated on Earth as many collisions as about a million LHC experiments – and the planet still exists. Astronomers observe an enormous number of larger astronomical bodies throughout the Universe, all of which are also struck by cosmic rays. The Universe as a whole conducts more than 10 million million LHC-like experiments per second. The possibility of any dangerous consequences contradicts what astronomers see – stars and galaxies still exist.
Microscopic black holes

Nature forms black holes when certain stars, much larger than our Sun, collapse on themselves at the end of their lives. They concentrate a very large amount of matter in a very small space. Speculations about microscopic black holes at the LHC refer to particles produced in the collisions of pairs of protons, each of which has an energy comparable to that of a mosquito in flight. Astronomical black holes are much heavier than anything that could be produced at the LHC.

According to the well-established properties of gravity, described by Einstein’s relativity, it is impossible for microscopic black holes to be produced at the LHC. There are, however, some speculative theories that predict the production of such particles at the LHC. All these theories predict that these particles would disintegrate immediately. Black holes, therefore, would have no time to start accreting matter and to cause macroscopic effects.

Although theory predicts that microscopic black holes decay rapidly, even hypothetical stable black holes can be shown to be harmless by studying the consequences of their production by cosmic rays. Whilst collisions at the LHC differ from cosmic-ray collisions with astronomical bodies like the Earth in that new particles produced in LHC collisions tend to move more slowly than those produced by cosmic rays, one can still demonstrate their safety. The specific reasons for this depend whether the black holes are electrically charged, or neutral. Many stable black holes would be expected to be electrically charged, since they are created by charged particles. In this case they would interact with ordinary matter and be stopped while traversing the Earth or Sun, whether produced by cosmic rays or the LHC. The fact that the Earth and Sun are still here rules out the possibility that cosmic rays or the LHC could produce dangerous charged microscopic black holes. If stable microscopic black holes had no electric charge, their interactions with the Earth would be very weak. Those produced by cosmic rays would pass harmlessly through the Earth into space, whereas those produced by the LHC could remain on Earth. However, there are much larger and denser astronomical bodies than the Earth in the Universe. Black holes produced in cosmic-ray collisions with bodies such as neutron stars and white dwarf stars would be brought to rest. The continued existence of such dense bodies, as well as the Earth, rules out the possibility of the LHC producing any dangerous black holes.
Strangelets

Strangelet is the term given to a hypothetical microscopic lump of ‘strange matter’ containing almost equal numbers of particles called up, down and strange quarks. According to most theoretical work, strangelets should change to ordinary matter within a thousand-millionth of a second. But could strangelets coalesce with ordinary matter and change it to strange matter? This question was first raised before the start up of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, in 2000 in the United States. A study at the time showed that there was no cause for concern, and RHIC has now run for eight years, searching for strangelets without detecting any. At times, the LHC will run with beams of heavy nuclei, just as RHIC does. The LHC’s beams will have more energy than RHIC, but this makes it even less likely that strangelets could form. It is difficult for strange matter to stick together in the high temperatures produced by such colliders, rather as ice does not form in hot water. In addition, quarks will be more dilute at the LHC than at RHIC, making it more difficult to assemble strange matter. Strangelet production at the LHC is therefore less likely than at RHIC, and experience there has already validated the arguments that strangelets cannot be produced.
Vacuum bubbles

There have been speculations that the Universe is not in its most stable configuration, and that perturbations caused by the LHC could tip it into a more stable state, called a vacuum bubble, in which we could not exist. If the LHC could do this, then so could cosmic-ray collisions. Since such vacuum bubbles have not been produced anywhere in the visible Universe, they will not be made by the LHC.
Magnetic monopoles

Magnetic monopoles are hypothetical particles with a single magnetic charge, either a north pole or a south pole. Some speculative theories suggest that, if they do exist, magnetic monopoles could cause protons to decay. These theories also say that such monopoles would be too heavy to be produced at the LHC. Nevertheless, if the magnetic monopoles were light enough to appear at the LHC, cosmic rays striking the Earth’s atmosphere would already be making them, and the Earth would very effectively stop and trap them. The continued existence of the Earth and other astronomical bodies therefore rules out dangerous proton-eating magnetic monopoles light enough to be produced at the LHC.
Other aspects of LHC safety:

Concern has recently been expressed that a ‘runaway fusion reaction’ might be created in the LHC carbon beam dump. The safety of the LHC beam dump had previously been reviewed by the relevant regulatory authorities of the CERN host states, France and Switzerland. The specific concerns expressed more recently have been addressed in a technical memorandum by Assmann et al. As they point out, fusion reactions can be maintained only in material compressed by some external pressure, such as that provided by gravity inside a star, a fission explosion in a thermonuclear device, a magnetic field in a Tokamak, or by continuing isotropic laser or particle beams in the case of inertial fusion. In the case of the LHC beam dump, it is struck once by the beam coming from a single direction. There is no countervailing pressure, so the dump material is not compressed, and no fusion is possible.

Concern has been expressed that a ‘runaway fusion reaction’ might be created in a nitrogen tank inside the LHC tunnel. There are no such nitrogen tanks. Moreover, the arguments in the previous paragraph prove that no fusion would be possible even if there were.

Finally, concern has also been expressed that the LHC beam might somehow trigger a ‘Bose-Nova’ in the liquid helium used to cool the LHC magnets. A study by Fairbairn and McElrath has clearly shown there is no possibility of the LHC beam triggering a fusion reaction in helium.

We recall that ‘Bose-Novae’ are known to be related to chemical reactions that release an infinitesimal amount of energy by nuclear standards. We also recall that helium is one of the most stable elements known, and that liquid helium has been used in many previous particle accelerators without mishap. The facts that helium is chemically inert and has no nuclear spin imply that no ‘Bose-Nova’ can be triggered in the superfluid helium used in the LHC.
Comments on the papers by Giddings and Mangano, and by LSAG

The papers by Giddings and Mangano and LSAG demonstrating the safety of the LHC have been studied, reviewed and endorsed by leading experts from the CERN Member States, Japan, Russia and the United States, working in astrophysics, cosmology, general relativity, mathematics, particle physics and risk analysis, including several Nobel Laureates in Physics. They all agree that the LHC is safe.

The paper by Giddings and Mangano has been peer-reviewed by anonymous experts in astrophysics and particle physics and published in the professional scientific journal Physical Review D. The American Physical Society chose to highlight this as one of the most significant papers it has published recently, commissioning a commentary by Prof. Peskin from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory in which he endorses its conclusions. The Executive Committee of the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society has issued a statement endorsing the LSAG report.

The LSAG report has been published by the UK Institute of Physics in its publication Journal of Physics G. The conclusions of the LSAG report were endorsed in a press release that announced this publication.

The conclusions of LSAG have also been endorsed by the Particle and Nuclear Physics Section (KET) of the German Physical Society. A translation into German of the complete LSAG report may be found on the KET website, as well as here. (A translation into French of the complete LSAG report is also available.)

Thus, the conclusion that LHC collisions are completely safe has been endorsed by the three respected professional societies of physicists that have reviewed it, which rank among the most highly respected professional societies in the world.

World-renowned experts in astrophysics, cosmology, general relativity, mathematics, particle physics and risk analysis, including several Nobel Laureates in Physics, have also expressed clear individual opinions that LHC collisions are not dangerous:

“To think that LHC particle collisions at high energies can lead to dangerous black holes is rubbish. Such rumors were spread by unqualified people seeking sensation or publicity.”

Academician Vitaly Ginzburg, Nobel Laureate in Physics, Lebedev Institute, Moscow, and Russian Academy of Sciences

“The operation of the LHC is safe, not only in the old sense of that word, but in the more general sense that our most qualified scientists have thoroughly considered and analyzed the risks involved in the operation of the LHC. [Any concerns] are merely hypothetical and speculative, and contradicted by much evidence and scientific analysis.”

Prof. Sheldon Glashow, Nobel Laureate in Physics, Boston University,

Prof. Frank Wilczek, Nobel Laureate in Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

Prof. Richard Wilson, Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics, Harvard University

“The world will not come to an end when the LHC turns on. The LHC is absolutely safe. … Collisions releasing greater energy occur millions of times a day in the earth’s atmosphere and nothing terrible happens.”

Prof. Steven Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, Cambridge University

“Nature has already done this experiment. … Cosmic rays have hit the moon with more energy and have not produced a black hole that has swallowed up the moon. The universe doesn’t go around popping off huge black holes.”

Prof. Edward Kolb, Astrophysicist, University of Chicago

“I certainly have no worries at all about the purported possibility of LHC producing microscopic black holes capable of eating up the Earth. There is no scientific basis whatever for such wild speculations.”

Prof. Sir Roger Penrose, Former Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics, Oxford University

“There is no risk [in LHC collisions, and] the LSAG report is excellent.”

Prof. Lord Martin Rees, UK Astronomer Royal and President of the Royal Society of London

“Those who have doubts about LHC safety should read LSAG report where all possible risks were considered. We can be sure that particle collisions at the LHC cannot lead to a catastrophic consequences.”

Academician V.A. Rubakov, Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow, and Russian Academy of Sciences

“We fully endorse the conclusions of the LSAG report: there is no basis for any concerns about the consequences of new particles or forms of matter that could possibly be produced at the LHC.”

R. Aleksan et al., the 20 external members of the CERN Scientific Policy Committee, including Prof. Gerard ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics.

The overwhelming majority of physicists agree that microscopic black holes would be unstable, as predicted by basic principles of quantum mechanics. As discussed in the LSAG report, if microscopic black holes can be produced by the collisions of quarks and/or gluons inside protons, they must also be able to decay back into quarks and/or gluons. Moreover, quantum mechanics predicts specifically that they should decay via Hawking radiation.

Nevertheless, a few papers have suggested that microscopic black holes might be stable. The paper by Giddings and Mangano and the LSAG report analyzed very conservatively the hypothetical case of stable microscopic black holes and concluded that even in this case there would be no conceivable danger. Another analysis with similar conclusions has been documented by Dr. Koch, Prof. Bleicher and Prof. Stoecker of Frankfurt University and GSI, Darmstadt, who conclude:

“We discussed the logically possible black hole evolution paths. Then we discussed every single outcome of those paths and showed that none of the physically sensible paths can lead to a black hole disaster at the LHC.”

Professor Roessler (who has a medical degree and was formerly a chaos theorist in Tuebingen) also raised doubts on the existence of Hawking radiation. His ideas have been refuted by Profs. Nicolai (Director at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics – Albert-Einstein-Institut – in Potsdam) and Giulini, whose report (see here for the English translation, and here for further statements) point to his failure to understand general relativity and the Schwarzschild metric, and his reliance on an alternative theory of gravity that was disproven in 1915. Their verdict:

“[Roessler’s] argument is not valid; the argument is not self-consistent.”

The paper of Prof. Roessler has also been criticized by Prof. Bruhn of the Darmstadt University of Technology, who concludes that:

“Roessler’s misinterpretation of the Schwarzschild metric [renders] his further considerations … null and void. These are not papers that could be taken into account when problems of black holes are discussed.”

A hypothetical scenario for possibly dangerous metastable black holes has recently been proposed by Dr. Plaga. The conclusions of this work have been shown to be inconsistent in a second paper by Giddings and Mangano, where it is also stated that the safety of this class of metastable black hole scenarios is already established by their original work.

Download the Comments on claimed risks from metastable black holes
Download the Statement from the Executive Board of the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society (APS)
Download this summary of the LSAG report. Translations are available in the following languages : fr de el es it jp no pl ru.
Download the LSAG report (2008) A translation is available in: fr
Download the specialist report published in Europe (2003)
Download the specialist report published in the United States (1999)
Download expert comment on speculations raised by Professor Otto Roessler about the production of black holes at the LHC
Download further expert comment on speculations raised by Professor Otto Roessler about the production of black holes at the LHC. Translations are available in the following languages : fr
Download another independent assessment of the safety of black hole scenarios at the LHC

Copyright CERN 2008 – Web Communications, DSU-CO

ibnusomowiyono
ibnusomowiyono wrote on Jun 8, ’11, edited on Jun 8, ’11
Teori Minimalis menginformasikan bahwa cikal bakal isi alam semesta adalah enegri gaib (x) di Sub Alam Gaib dan energi metafisika (y) di Sub Alam Metafisika. Kedua jenis energi ini melakukan interaksi mekanistik menjadi dipole magnet E= – x + y dalam Sub Alam Transien/ pra natural.
Energi x dan y bukanlah kutub magnet (monopole) seperti anggapan para ilmuwan fisika yang dipastiknan memiliki massa melebihi proton sehingga tak dapat dimanfaatkan dalam alam semesta tiruan. Para ilmuwan fisika memandang monopole dapat diperoleh dari pemisahan dipole yang telah seimbang kutubnya menjadi kutub u dan kutub s. Menurut Teori Minimalis x dan y adalah fenomena supernatural, sedangkan dipole yang kutubnya belum seimbang atau eteric yang memiliki E#0 termasuk fenomena transien dan pra natural. Energi fisika yang memiliki E=0 akan memiliki masa karena saat E=0, maka x=y=q=quantum. Sebelum E=0 tak ada harga q yang ada adalah e, artinya saat E#0 belum terbentuk quantum (energi fisika), namun telah terjadi eteric. STW adalah gelombang electro magnet yang ditimbulkan goncangan nilai x dan y disekitar keseimbang prima (E=0) akan menimbulkan photon saat mengalami fasa E=0 (x=y) , diruang semu photon akan segera lenyap sesaat setelah keluar dari keseimbangan primanya, tetapi diruang nyata photon akan berinteraksi dengan partikel, sub partikel atau partikel yang lebih mendasar (misalnya quark). Menurut TM photon merupakan transisi dari E#0 (eteric) menjadi E=0 (quantum).. Menurut fisika photon tak memiliki massa, tetapi menurut TM photon memiliki massa namun sangat kecil diluar dimensi fisika.
Menurut TM penyatuan quantum dengan eteric menghasilkan quantum eteric. Baik quantum, maupun quantum eteric memiliki E=0, sedangkan eterik memiliki E#0. Hal ini dijelaskan dengan Matematika MInimalis E=0 * E#0 = E=0. Jika quantum eterik mengalami pergantian operatornya dari perkalian (*) menjadi penambahan (+) akan terjadi E=0 + E#0 = E#0 yang dinamakan anti matter (versi minimalis). Jika quantum eteric berinteraksi dengan anti matter akan terjadi annihilis, seluruhnya kembali jadi STW (radiasi sinar gamma). i STW dapat menghasilkan photon lagi yang dapat berinteraksi dengan partikel (quantum atau quantum eteric).
Pemisahan (spacing) quantum eterik maupun anti matter dapat menghasilkan quantum (E=0) dan eteric (E#0). Hanya quantum atau quantum eteric yang memiliki E=0 yang dapat terakses lewat pancaindra maupun peralatan fisika. Kepadatan quantum jauh lebih tinggi dibanding quantum eteric. Heavy matter adalah contoh dari quantum, misalnya Blackhole., sedangkan eteric tak memiliki massa.misalnya informatika dan astral body.
ibnusomowiyono
ibnusomowiyono wrote on Nov 24, ’11
Berdasar Matermatika Minimalis (E=0)*(E#0) = (E=0) sedangkan (E=0)+(E#0) = (E#0). Jika formula ini diterapkan pada matter yang memiliki (E=0) dan anti matter yang memiliki (E#0), maka akan berlaku matter*antimater akan menghasilkan matter, bukan terjadi annihilis. Anihilis hanya terjadi jika matter + anti matter. Jadi dapat disimpulkan: Jika anti matter bergabung (operatornya +) dengan matter maka akan terjadi annihilis, sedangkan jika anti matter menyatu (operatornya *) dengan matter yang terjadi adalah matter yang kondisinya tak stabil, hingga memancarkan gelombang STW. Dalam Fisika matter yang memancarkan radiasi gelombang gamma adalah unsur radioaktiv. Peluluhan radioaktiv dapat dipandang sebagai annihilis secara berangsur (evolusi), sedangkan penggabungan matter dengan anti matter yang menyebabkan annihilis merupakan fenomena revolusi.

Tentang Akung Ibnu

Kakek dengan duabelas cucu yang masih senang menulis. Semoga tulisan-tulisan ini bermanfaat.
Pos ini dipublikasikan di Teori Minimalis. Tandai permalink.

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